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Departing from a traditional and formal format in delivering his inaugural State of the University Address, Slippery Rock University President William Behre offered his observations based on what he has learned during his first 75 days on the job. Controlled trial of a diet high in unsaturated fat for prevention of atherosclerotic complications. Increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis and mitochondrial efficiency in a model of obesity induced by diets rich in fructose. It could be argued that those who fail to see this live in the past, where it was indeed true that the biological route was pretty closed. We have to be able to describe what it looks like, how it manifests itself, how apparent understanding or misunderstanding differs from genuine understanding, which misunderstandings are most likely to arise thus interfering with our goal , and whether we are making headway in ferreting out and eradicating the key impediments to future understanding. These forces can take myriad forms:
Decomposition rates are highest in wet, moist conditions with adequate levels of oxygen. Wet soils tend to become deficient in oxygen this is especially true in wetlands , which slows microbial growth. In dry soils, decomposition slows as well, but bacteria continue to grow albeit at a slower rate even after soils become too dry to support plant growth. Ecosystems continually exchange energy and carbon with the wider environment. Mineral nutrients, on the other hand, are mostly cycled back and forth between plants, animals, microbes and the soil.
Most nitrogen enters ecosystems through biological nitrogen fixation , is deposited through precipitation, dust, gases or is applied as fertilizer. Since most terrestrial ecosystems are nitrogen-limited, nitrogen cycling is an important control on ecosystem production.
Until modern times, nitrogen fixation was the major source of nitrogen for ecosystems. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria either live symbiotically with plants or live freely in the soil. Many members of the legume plant family support nitrogen-fixing symbionts. Some cyanobacteria are also capable of nitrogen fixation. These are phototrophs , which carry out photosynthesis. Like other nitrogen-fixing bacteria, they can either be free-living or have symbiotic relationships with plants. When plant tissues are shed or are eaten, the nitrogen in those tissues becomes available to animals and microbes.
Microbial decomposition releases nitrogen compounds from dead organic matter in the soil, where plants, fungi, and bacteria compete for it. Some soil bacteria use organic nitrogen-containing compounds as a source of carbon, and release ammonium ions into the soil. This process is known as nitrogen mineralization. Others convert ammonium to nitrite and nitrate ions, a process known as nitrification. Nitric oxide and nitrous oxide are also produced during nitrification.
Other important nutrients include phosphorus , sulfur , calcium , potassium , magnesium and manganese. As ecosystems age this supply diminishes, making phosphorus-limitation more common in older landscapes especially in the tropics.
Although magnesium and manganese are produced by weathering, exchanges between soil organic matter and living cells account for a significant portion of ecosystem fluxes. Potassium is primarily cycled between living cells and soil organic matter. Biodiversity plays an important role in ecosystem functioning. The nature of the organisms—the species, functional groups and trophic levels to which they belong—dictates the sorts of actions these individuals are capable of carrying out and the relative efficiency with which they do so.
Ecological theory suggests that in order to coexist, species must have some level of limiting similarity —they must be different from one another in some fundamental way, otherwise one species would competitively exclude the other.
The addition or loss of species which are ecologically similar to those already present in an ecosystem tends to only have a small effect on ecosystem function. Ecologically distinct species, on the other hand, have a much larger effect.
Similarly, dominant species have a large effect on ecosystem function, while rare species tend to have a small effect. Keystone species tend to have an effect on ecosystem function that is disproportionate to their abundance in an ecosystem. Ecosystems are dynamic entities. They are subject to periodic disturbances and are in the process of recovering from some past disturbance.
The tendency of an ecosystem to remain close to its equilibrium state, despite that disturbance, is termed its resistance. On the other hand, the speed with which it returns to its initial state after disturbance is called its resilience.
From one year to another, ecosystems experience variation in their biotic and abiotic environments. A drought, an especially cold winter and a pest outbreak all constitute short-term variability in environmental conditions. Animal populations vary from year to year, building up during resource-rich periods and crashing as they overshoot their food supply. These changes play out in changes in net primary production decomposition rates, and other ecosystem processes.
Disturbance also plays an important role in ecological processes. Stuart Chapin and coauthors define disturbance as "a relatively discrete event in time and space that alters the structure of populations, communities, and ecosystems and causes changes in resources availability or the physical environment".
Such disturbances can cause large changes in plant, animal and microbe populations, as well soil organic matter content. The frequency and severity of disturbance determine the way it affects ecosystem function. A major disturbance like a volcanic eruption or glacial advance and retreat leave behind soils that lack plants, animals or organic matter. Ecosystems that experience such disturbances undergo primary succession.
A less severe disturbance like forest fires, hurricanes or cultivation result in secondary succession and a faster recovery. Classifying ecosystems into ecologically homogeneous units is an important step towards effective ecosystem management. A variety of systems exist, based on vegetation cover, remote sensing, and bioclimatic classification systems.
Ecological land classification is a cartographical delineation or regionalisation of distinct ecological areas, identified by their geology , topography , soils , vegetation , climate conditions, living species, habitats , water resources, and sometimes also anthropic factors.
Human activities are important in almost all ecosystems. Although humans exist and operate within ecosystems, their cumulative effects are large enough to influence external factors like climate. Ecosystems provide a variety of goods and services upon which people depend.
Ecosystem services , on the other hand, are generally "improvements in the condition or location of things of value". When natural resource management is applied to whole ecosystems, rather than single species, it is termed ecosystem management.
While ecosystem management can be used as part of a plan for wilderness conservation, it can also be used in intensively managed ecosystems  see, for example, agroecosystem and close to nature forestry.
As human population and per capita consumption grow, so do the resource demands imposed on ecosystems and the effects of the human ecological footprint. Natural resources are vulnerable and limited. The environmental impacts of anthropogenic actions are becoming more apparent. Problems for all ecosystems include: For terrestrial ecosystems further threats include air pollution , soil degradation , and deforestation. For aquatic ecosystems threats include also unsustainable exploitation of marine resources for example overfishing of certain species , marine pollution , microplastics pollution, water pollution , and building on coastal areas.
Society is increasingly becoming aware that ecosystem services are not only limited but also that they are threatened by human activities. The need to better consider long-term ecosystem health and its role in enabling human habitation and economic activity is urgent.
To help inform decision-makers, many ecosystem services are being assigned economic values, often based on the cost of replacement with anthropogenic alternatives. The ongoing challenge of prescribing economic value to nature, for example through biodiversity banking , is prompting transdisciplinary shifts in how we recognize and manage the environment, social responsibility , business opportunities, and our future as a species.
The term "ecosystem" was first used in in a publication by British ecologist Arthur Tansley. Evelyn Hutchinson , a limnologist who was a contemporary of Tansley's, combined Charles Elton 's ideas about trophic ecology with those of Russian geochemist Vladimir Vernadsky.
As a result, he suggested that mineral nutrient availability in a lake limited algal production. This would, in turn, limit the abundance of animals that feed on algae. Raymond Lindeman took these ideas further to suggest that the flow of energy through a lake was the primary driver of the ecosystem. Mais naïfs ou pas, je vois bien ce qu'elle me signifie: Jean Baudrillard Born , died Wikipedia - weblinks - books.
Zygmunt Bauman is concerned with the analysis of modernity , His wife, Janina, was a survivor of the Warsaw Ghetto during the second world war. Reflecting on her experiences led Zygmunt to write Modernity and The Holocaust in which he argues that the bureaucracy that Max Weber , and many subsequent social theorists, argue is central to modernity, robs us of our morality and disables us from being critical of what we do.
Bauman dates the transition from pre-modernity to modernity to the seventeenth century. He says that the pre-modern world view associated with feudalism began to fall apart towards the end of the sixteenth century and the modern world view was established roughly three hundred years ago Since , Bauman has been particularly concerned with the analysis of what he calls the present liquid phase of modernity, which he contrasts with a previous solid phase.
Bauman's term solid modernity could be compared to some other authors' use of the concept of industrial society and his term liquid modernity to the concepts of post modern society and networked society. See concepts of modernity and recent modernity See summary of book Liquid Modernity. Solid-modernity relates to the industrial period, made possible by steam power from the mid-eighteenth centry. Bauman's descriptions of solid modernity seem to focus first on the mid-nineteenth century, to factories , steam ships and railway lines.
He also highlights the later development of Fordism s. His descriptions of liquid modernity often relate to the digital age and, at one point , he contrasts Microsoft with Ford.
North Staffordshire wives support their husbands during the miners' strike. The transition from solid modernity to fluid or liquid modernity is much more than a change in technology: It is a change in the structure of society and the relation of classes. In UK history, a turning point several sociologists have focused on is the defeat of the miners' strike in This has been seen as the victory of consumerism over producerism , and of individualism over collectivism. If we look closer at the history , we see that other things are changing.
A memorial to the strike speaks of "the mighty courage, heroism and pride of the Mining was male, women were the family. Liquid modernity also implies more fluid relationships in all aspects of social reality. Do sociologists need to abandon old concepts and theories, and invent a radically new kind of sociology?
Or can they build upon existing foundations and develop a sociology adequate to these 'liquid modern' times, by devising new concepts and theories, which enable us to grasp, for example, the nature of uncertainty and risk, and the seeming randomness of contemporary life? In the same way that classical sociologists, such as Marx and Weber attempted to develop a sociology of 'solid modernity, so Bauman is attempting to develop a sociology of 'liquid modernity', in a series of works, with titles such as Liquid Modernity , Liquid Love , Liquid Life , Liquid Fear , Liquid Times The Bauman Institute uses liquid for its logo - Contrast with the chains of solid modernity.
Cesare Beccaria Born Ulrich Beck Born ,. Elisabeth Beck-Gernsheim Born ,. BBC Chernobyl twenty years on Industrial risk in the second half of the twentieth century could have more global consequences than in the nineteenth century.
Beck says that "Soil, plants, air, water and animals" do not have a vote in this assessment, but their preservation represents our "common good" and "perhaps only a passive franchise for grass and earthworms will bring humanity to its senses".
For young people from the city of Schwerin, in the northern part of Germany, Risikogessellschaft became the name for their individual hopes for the future in a video sculpture that you can watch with English sub-titles here. The way each fades away after expressing his or her hopes is unnerving. But, the Becks argue , increasing insecurity associated with the flexible labour market mean that both class and status are losing their significance.
Beck and Elisabeth Beck-Gernsheim refer to this process as individualistation. Howard Becker Born ,. Clifford Beers Born Jeremy Bentham Born , died An attorney's son, born in London. From Bentham studied law at Lincoln's Inn, but never practised. He was interested in the theory of law. In Bentham published A Fragment on Government. This criticised a passage in Blackstone's Commentaries. William Blackstone - saw the English law embodying the collective wisdom of the society.
Bentham descibed this a "fiction" - a set of ideas hiding the true motives of those who proclaimed them. The scientific study of law should be based on the understanding that humans pursue happiness and avoid pain.
From to , Bentham travelled on the Continent, including Russia. He formed the idea that he could become the Newton of morals and legislation. From to he was engaged in promoting the construction of an institution for remodelling human behaviour: Herbert Blumer Born 7.
In La sociologie est un sport de combat Bourdieu gave a farewell kiss to the sociology student who said: I believed I was free, but I was not free at all. Symbolic violence and all that I have been living exactly what you write about for the last fifteen years. Pierre Bourdieu Born , died Books - notes and quotes weblinks - concepts.
The book is about who would inherit the elite Paris university in the s? Educational success is a pathway to social and economic success, but are there forces that ensure the children of the already successful inherit the education? As the title indicates, the forces indicated are cultural. The publication was mainly a report on the research respecting formal education through school and university.
Later research publications covered cultural tastes revealed in the use made of photography and art museums The cover illustration from La Reproduction See Malcolm's summary. Reproduction is a term used in contrast with production. Production is making goods, reproduction is making people able to produce goods. The terms are used in marxist theory. Based on an August summary by Malcolm Richardson Pierre Bourdieu' work is concerned with cultural practices, and their associated institutions e.
Taste therefore is a badge of class. Our culture defines us as members of a particular social class, and distinguishes us from individuals in other social classes. A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste is based on the empirical research he and others carried out in France between and It shows how distinctions based on social class get reinforced in daily life. John Bowlby Born Cyril Burt Born 3. Judith Butler Born Judith Butler in Judith Butler is the author of Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity , in which she argued against a biologically determined gender identity.
Judith Butler reinterprets Simone De Beauvoir 's suggestion that "one is not born a woman, but, rather becomes one". De Beauvoir can be read as making a distinction between gender and sex in which gender is socially created around the natural body of sexual differences.
Butler argues that "there is no recourse to a body that has not always already been interpreted by cultural meanings ; hence, sex could not qualify as a pre discursive anatomical facticity. Indeed, sex , by definition, will be shown to have been gender all along". Judith Butler uses some of Michel Foucault 's ideas about the construction of self-identity to develop a performative theory of gender which argues that our sex is not something fixed and determinate, but something which is much more fluid and open.
Butler develops the idea of Foucault, in a chapter called "docile bodies" , that society inscribes on our bodies what we are. Health, Social Care and Education Peter pioneered the publication of survivor history and is the leading British survivor historian. In , Peter was awarded an honorary doctorate of the Open University for work in areas of special educational concern to the University He is the Chair of the Survivors' History Group.
Thomas Carlyle Born , died Manuel Castells Born George Catlin Born , died Judi Chamberlin Born Harriette Chick Born 6. Richard Crocket Born 7. Charles Darwin Born , died Thomas Henry Huxley Born - Died Humphry Davy Born Simone de Beauvoir için sürpriz doodle - best independent quotes - guardian quotes Aniversario de Simone de Beauvoir.
Had she lived, she would have been on Thursday 9. It does not tell you why Google celebrated her th birthday. Simone De Beauvoir's sociology in historical context. Simone de Beauvoir Born 9. Rene Descartes Born , died Through Descartes view of space we can relate geometry and algebra.
See graph See the Wikipedia article on the Cartesian coordinate system , which says "One can use the same principle to specify the position of any point in three-dimensional space by three Cartesian coordinates". A three dimensional Cartesian coordinate system, with origin O and axis lines X, Y and Z, oriented as shown by the arrows.
See adding time as a fourth dimension. John Dewey Born Wilhelm Dilthey Born , died Life and works books - extracts - weblinks See Social Science History , chapter six: Who is the Sociologist? Durkheim is often thought of as the founder of sociology, the science of society.
He developed Rousseau's concept that society is not the sum of its individual members, but is a reality in itself, based on the general will. Durkheim removed this from its origin in State of Nature Theory. He argued that humans are by nature social. Society is not something that came about by individuals joining together.
We have always been part of society. Society is, therefore, a reality which we can study, and Durkheim's project was to develop the scientific study of it. See Social Science History , chapter six: Durkheim and Weber's contrasting imaginations: Albert Einstein Born , died The first edition of Drop Out by Robin Farquharson was published in Its cover had this cartoon of Robin. In the preface dated When I'm up, I have no judgement, but fantastic drive; when I'm down, I have judgement, but no drive at all.
In between I pass for normal well enough. William Farr Born , died Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach Born Robert Filmer Born , died Victor Vic Finkelstein Born Cartoon from New Internationalist In the first of these, he imagined a village designed and lived in by users of wheelchairs.
They fix the height of doors and ceilings lower than outside the village, as they do not need the extra height. When people who did not use wheelchairs come to the village, they keep on banging their heads. This experience teaches them that disability is socially constructed. Ronald Fisher Born Julienne Ford Born Michel Foucault Born Sigmund Freud Born 6.
It started with Blanche Whittman's faints. Click the picture to read about her. Freud was the founder of Psychoanalysis. Psychodynamic describes a theory derived from psychoanalysis timeline - books - weblinks - extracts life and works Do it yourself excavation of Freud What Freud thought of John Stuart Mill What De Beauvoir thought of Freud Anna Freud - - - - - dreams - Little Hans - Strachey - Bloch - In Interpretation of Dreams , Sigmund Freud interpreted the symbolism of dreams in a way that he presented as a scientific exploration of the unconscious mind.
In Beautiful Baby Laura Leland explains this. Erich Fromm Born , died Francis Galton Born The other line shows that the average offspring of each size regressed towards an average size. Erving Goffman Born , died Olympe de Gouges Born , Died French feminist writer.
Antonio Gramsci Born He was conditionally released in on health grounds, and died in hospital in Gramsci's writings were published in Moscow in and parts translated into English in the same year. They have had an enormous influence on the development of marxism in Europe. Gramsci's writings were used to argue that class conflict which Marx and Engels placed at the core of history was as much a struggle for the creation of new ideas as anything else.
Jürgen Habermas Born Habermas came from a German family with National Socialist Nazi sympathies and grew up under the Nazi regime. He was not yet four when Adolf Hitler came to power in and almost sixteen years old when Hitler committed suicide in His youth having been shaped by authoritarian, nationalistic and racist ideals, his intellectual life after the war was shaped by a search for the foundations of freedom and democracy and how these related to what he called the " bourgeoise public sphere ".
Norway and the public sphere In , Habermas was the second person to be awarded the Norwegian sponsored "Holberg International Memorial Prize for outstanding scholarly work in the areas of arts and humanities, social sciences, law or theology" see website. At this time, the Frankfurt School was being criticised in the United States as the carrier of subversive "cultural marxism".
The public debate that followed in Norway might be considered as a test of the solidarity of the public sphere in confrontation with older nationalistic and racist ideas. Breivik's manifesto starts with the cross of St George, symbolising the struggle of Christianity against Islam. Hitler's swastika symbolised the struggle of the Aryan against the Jew.
Catherine Hall Born Health Promotion and Maintenance. The nurse is presenting information to a community group on safer sex practices. The nurse should teach that which sexual practice is the riskiest? A Anal intercourse is the riskiest sexual practice because the fragile anal tissue can tear, creating a portal of entry for human immune deficiency virus.
The nurse providing direct client care uses specific practices to reduce the chance of acquiring infection with human immune deficiency virus HIV from clients. Which practice is most effective? Consistent use of Standard Precautions b. Double-gloving before body fluid exposure c. Wearing a mask within 3 feet of the client ANS: Double-gloving is not necessary.
Wearing a mask within 3 feet of the client is part of Airborne Precautions and is not necessary with every client contact. Safe and Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control. A client with human immune deficiency virus is admitted to the hospital with fever, night sweats, and severe cough.
What action should the nurse take first? Initiate Droplet Precautions for the client. Place the client under Airborne Precautions. Use Standard Precautions to provide care. The nurse should first place the client on Airborne Precautions to prevent the spread of TB if it is present. Droplet Precautions are not used for TB. Standard Precautions are not adequate in this case. The test is negative and the client states Whew! I was really worried about that result.
What action by the nurse is most important? Assess the clients sexual activity and patterns. Express happiness over the test result. Remind the client about safer sex practices. Tell the client to be retested in 3 months.
This period of time is known as the window period and can last up to 36 months. The nurse needs to assess the clients sexual behavior further to determine the proper response. The other actions are not the most important, but discussing safer sex practices is always appropriate. Reduction of Risk Potential. A client with human immune deficiency virus HIV has had a sudden decline in status with a large increase in viral load. Ask the client about travel to any foreign countries.
Assess the client for adherence to the drug regimen. Determine if the client has any new sexual partners. Request information about new living quarters or pets. B Adherence to the complex drug regimen needed for HIV treatment can be daunting. Since this clients viral load has increased dramatically, the nurse should first assess this factor. After this, the other assessments may or may not be needed. A client is hospitalized with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. The client reports shortness of breath with activity and extreme fatigue.
What intervention is best to promote comfort? Perform most activities for the client. Increase the clients oxygen during activity. Pace activities, allowing for adequate rest. D This client has two major reasons for fatigue: The nurse should not do everything for the client but rather let the client do as much as possible within limits and allow for adequate rest in between. Sleeping medications may be needed but not as the first step, and only with caution. Increasing oxygen during activities may or may not be warranted, but first the nurse must try pacing the clients activity.
Basic Care and Comfort. A client with HIV wasting syndrome has inadequate nutrition. What assessment finding by the nurse best indicates that goals have been met for this client problem? Chooses high-protein food b. Has decreased oral discomfort c. D The weight gain is the best indicator that goals for this client problem have been met because it demonstrates that the client not only is eating well but also is able to absorb the nutrients.
A client with acquired immune deficiency syndrome is hospitalized and has weeping Kaposis sarcoma lesions. The nurse dresses them with sterile gauze. When changing these dressings, which action is most important? Adhering to Standard Precautions b. Assessing tolerance to dressing changes c. Performing hand hygiene before and after care d. Disposing of soiled dressings properly ANS: D All of the actions are important, but due to the infectious nature of this illness, ensuring proper disposal of soiled dressings is vital.
A client has a primary selective immunoglobulin A deficiency. The nurse should prepare the client for self-management by teaching what principle of medical management? Infusions will be scheduled every 3 to 4 weeks. Treatment is aimed at treating specific infections. Unfortunately, there is no effective treatment. You will need many immunoglobulin A infusions. B Treatment for this disorder is vigorous management of infection, not infusion of exogenous immunoglobulins.
The other responses are inaccurate. Immune disorders patient education MSC: An HIV-positive client is admitted to the hospital with Toxoplasma gondii infection. Which action by the nurse is most appropriate?
Place the client on Airborne Precautions. Place the client on Droplet Precautions. Use Standard Precautions consistently.