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Chait A, Kim F. This suggests that the most effective means of prevention is from the primary source. The Equus Nutrition System Advantage Highest Quality Ingredients All Equus diets are oat based, combining the highest quality oats; steam flaked barley and cracked corn with the highest quality proteins, vitamins and minerals to meet the strict demands of your horse. Compared with normal-weight individuals, healthy obese people have higher circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines and CRP. In Europe and Asia, the common carp frequently lives in naturally Eutrophic or Hypereutrophic areas, and is adapted to living in such conditions. When dissolved oxygen levels decline to hypoxic levels, fish and other marine animals suffocate.

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Although most studies have focused on the effects of fish oil, consuming approximately 3 oz of fatty fish eg, salmon, herring five times per week for eight weeks resulted in significant lowering of plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6 among elderly Chinese women with dyslipidemia. Chia seed, walnuts, canola oil, and flaxseed oil are sources of the omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid ALA. A powerful antioxidant, ascorbic acid vitamin C defends cells against lipid peroxidation and scavenges reactive oxygen and nitrogen species such as hydroxyl, peroxyl, superoxide, nitroxide radical, and peroxynitrite.

Ascorbic acid supports phagocytosis by macrophages and stimulates the activity of natural killer lymphocytes generated during the innate immune response. Through its function as a cofactor in enzymes controlling collagen synthesis, vitamin C also reduces tissue damage at inflammation sites. Vitamin E exists in nature as different chemical structures; the most common forms in the diet are alpha- and gamma-tocopherol.

Foods such as seeds, nuts, and vegetable oils are sources of gamma-tocopherol, while supplements commonly contain alpha-tocopherol. Alpha- and gamma-tocopherol have different biological activities. Alpha-tocopherol has long been recognized for its capacity to scavenge free radicals and prevent lipid oxidation.

In addition, it inhibits the release of proinflammatory cytokines and reduces CRP levels. Most clinical trials assessing the anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin E primarily have looked at alpha-tocopherol supplementation and not tocopherols from foods.

Alpha-tocopherol significantly decreases circulating levels of gamma-tocopherol, decreasing its anti-inflammatory properties. In addition, alpha- and gamma-tocopherol may have a synergistic effect on inflammation.

Vitamin E shows some promise in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis symptoms. These aromatic compounds are found in fruits, vegetables, grains, chocolate, coffee, olive oil, and tea. To date, thousands of polyphenols have been identified and classified into different subgroups. Flavonoids include the flavanones naringenin and hesperidin found in citrus fruit ; flavonols such as myricetin, kaempferol, and quercetin found in apples, cocoa, and onions ; and the flavones luteolin and apigenin found in celery , catechins found in tea , and anthocyanins found in berries.

Phenolic acids caffeic acid, gallic acid, and ferulic acid are found in coffee, olive oil, tea, grains, peanuts, and berries. Lignans secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol are found primarily in flaxseeds. The polyphenol resveratrol, classified as a stilbenoid, is found in red wine and berries.

Many polyphenols show powerful anti-inflammatory effects. Laboratory investigations, clinical trials, and prospective studies suggest that polyphenols inhibit enzymes involved in prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis, prevent free radical formation, decrease proinflammatory cytokine production, and block the activity of proinflammatory signaling systems.

Prebiotics are defined as nondigestible, nonabsorbable substances that can be fermented by bacteria in the gut, promote the growth of desirable microflora, and impart improvements to health. Prebiotics include oligofructose, a short-chain fructose polymer, and inulin, a type of dietary fiber. Food sources of prebiotics include chicory, Jerusalem artichokes, and onions. Inulin is an additive in many commercially prepared foods and sold as a dietary supplement.

Animal studies have shown that both prebiotics and probiotics can decrease the activity of proinflammatory cytokines and NF-kB, and increase levels of anti-inflammatory TGF-beta within the gut mucosa. Both prebiotics and probiotics appear to interact directly with gut epithelium cells to block pathogens from entering.

Clinical trials have helped corroborate the anti-inflammatory effects of prebiotics seen in laboratory studies. Infants and children with diarrheal illness showed marked improvement in symptoms eg, decreased diarrhea, vomiting, fever when given supplemental inulin. Administered to patients with ulcerative colitis or precancerous colon polyps, inulin improved measures of disease activity and reduced levels of intestinal proinflammatory proteins.

The results have been mixed but generally support a role for probiotics in decreasing disease activity and improving clinical symptoms. In addition, consuming cultured dairy foods has been found to alleviate symptoms of IBD, ulcerative colitis, and pouchitis. Anti-Inflammatory Foods and Dietary Patterns Various foods and dietary patterns are effective in reducing the underlying inflammatory processes associated with chronic disease.

A diet high in fruits and vegetables may be one of the best defenses against chronic inflammation. Fruits and vegetables are a highly bioavailable source of vitamins, minerals, fiber, and polyphenols with anti-inflammatory activity.

A cross-sectional study investigating self-reported fruit and vegetable intake among adults found that individuals reporting the highest consumption more than two servings of fruit and three servings of vegetables daily had significantly lower plasma levels of proinflammatory CRP, IL-6, and TNF-alpha as well as decreased biomarkers of oxidative stress.

Four to five servings daily each of fruits and vegetables are recommended to combat inflammation and chronic disease. The Mediterranean diet is characterized by the generous consumption of vegetables, fruits, grains, legumes, and nuts; a minimal intake of red meat and whole-fat dairy products; increased fish consumption; moderate red wine intake; and liberal use of olive oil in cooking and food preparation. Compared with Western diets, the Mediterranean diet is rich in fiber, polyphenols, antioxidants, and omega-3 fatty acids and low in saturated fat and refined carbohydrate.

Data from epidemiologic and clinical studies have demonstrated that consuming a Mediterranean-type diet reduces plasma levels of proinflammatory biomarkers, including endothelial adhesion molecules, CRP, TNF-alpha, and NF-kB. High-fiber, low-GI foods appear to have a beneficial effect on inflammatory biomarkers.

Adhering to a low-GI diet for one year resulted in significantly lower plasma levels of CRP in a clinical randomized trial of subjects with type 2 diabetes compared with adhering to high-GI and low-carbohydrate diets. Whole grain foods consist of the unaltered grain with intact bran and germ components, which are valuable sources of fiber, phytochemicals, vitamins, and minerals. Prospective and clinical studies have suggested that consuming whole grain foods such as oats, barley, and brown rice may help decrease inflammation associated with metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Weight loss is known to have beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and other chronic conditions. Additional research is needed to identify the independent and interactive effects of foods and nutrients and to evaluate the protective role of supplements in fighting inflammation.

Clinical Recommendations There are many simple dietary strategies that may effectively reduce levels of chronic inflammation and decrease disease risk. In addition, they may be unaware of the role diet plays in affecting the inflammatory processes underlying many chronic illnesses. Dietitians can support their clients and patients by emphasizing dietary changes that will help reduce inflammation levels in the body and begin to restore normal immune function. Encouraging clients to increase their intake of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, olive oil, and fatty fish is a positive message that can accompany advice to reduce their consumption of refined starches and sweets, and foods laden with trans and saturated fat.

Focusing on personalized goals and setting achievable objectives eg, eat an extra serving of fruit at lunch is key to helping clients make lasting dietary changes that will combat inflammation and enhance overall health. The right foods can help reduce the amount of inflammation in the body and improve health. Here are 10 suggestions for clients and patients for eating to decrease inflammation:. Boost consumption of fruits and vegetables. Aim to eat four to five servings each of fruits and vegetables daily.

Choose fruits and vegetables that are deep green, orange, yellow, and purple, since these have the greatest nutritional value.

Ten servings per day may sound like too much, but serving sizes are small: Cook with olive oil as much as possible and use it to make salad dressings. Virgin olive oil is best since it has more inflammation-fighting antioxidants than refined olive oil.

Snack on walnuts instead of chips. Walnuts provide fiber, minerals, antioxidants, and the kinds of fatty acids that are good for your heart. Eat a whole grain cereal such as oatmeal for breakfast, and replace refined grains with whole grains, such as substituting brown rice for white rice. Eat fatty fish such as salmon two to three times per week to get more omega-3 fatty acids. Wild salmon has more omega-3s than farmed salmon. Eat fewer fast foods. Many tend to be cooked in oils that contain trans fatty acids, which increase inflammation.

If you eat at fast-food restaurants, order a grilled chicken sandwich or salad with vinaigrette dressing. Replace white potatoes with sweet potatoes. Cut down on sugary drinks such as juice, soda, and punch. Add small amounts of cider, fruit juice, or wedges of lemon or orange to plain water to enhance the flavor.

Eat more lentils and beans. Try black beans and brown rice sautéed with onions and garlic and seasoned with cumin. Munch on dark chocolate and fresh raspberries for dessert. Both are loaded with antioxidants. Learning Objectives After completing this continuing education course, nutrition professionals should be better able to:. Assess the potential benefits of anti-inflammatory foods and nutrients to clients and patients. Abdominal obesity has which of the following effects?

It increases circulating levels of C-reactive protein CRP. It decreases circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines. It decreases fat cell necrosis. It normalizes adipose cell adipokine activity.

Foods rich in polyphenols help fight inflammation by which of the following mechanisms? They decrease anti-inflammatory cytokine production. They inhibit enzymes involved in prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis. They reduce omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratios.

What are the two types of adaptive immunity? Innate and receptive b. Humoral and cell mediated c. Antigenic and phagocytic d.

Based on this article, which of the following statements about metabolic syndrome is true? Which of the following is true of prebiotics and probiotics, based on this article? Both are strains of lactobacillus bacteria. Both are found in foods and are available as dietary supplements. Neither is effective in reducing gastrointestinal disease activity. Both can be obtained by eating cultured dairy foods. Which of the following are two examples of proinflammatory cytokines? CRP and serum amyloid A b.

Interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha c. Transforming growth factor beta and nuclear factor kappa B NF-kB d. Fibrinogen and clotting factor VII. Suppression of proinflammatory eicosanoids b. Conversion of linoleic acid to arachidonic acid c. Strengthening of the gut mucosa d. Stimulation of collagen synthesis. Acute phase reactants are biomarkers of chronic inflammation. A positive acute phase reactant has which of the following effects? Decreases during chronic inflammation b.

Increases during chronic inflammation c. Increases when inflammation subsides d. Decreases when proinflammatory cytokines are released. A diet low in refined carbohydrate and that limits high glycemic index foods may reduce inflammation in which of the following ways? By stimulating interleukin 1 secretion b. By decreasing free radical production c. By shutting off CRP synthesis in the liver d. By increasing NF-kB transcription factor activity. Which of the following causes difficulty in evaluating the effects of vitamin E on inflammation?

Alpha-tocopherol enhances the activity of gamma-tocopherol. Few foods contain vitamin E. Vitamin E is poorly absorbed. The vitamin E supplements evaluated in clinical trials typically are composed of only alpha-tocopherol. Inflammation and metabolic disorders. Inflammatory disease processes and interactions with nutrition. Atherosclerosis, cancer, wound healing, and inflammation—shared or parallel evolution. J Clin Exp Cardiolog.

However, a distinct lymphocyte -derived molecule has been discovered in primitive jawless vertebrates , such as the lamprey and hagfish. These animals possess a large array of molecules called Variable lymphocyte receptors VLRs that, like the antigen receptors of jawed vertebrates, are produced from only a small number one or two of genes.

These molecules are believed to bind pathogenic antigens in a similar way to antibodies, and with the same degree of specificity. When B cells and T cells are activated and begin to replicate, some of their offspring become long-lived memory cells. Throughout the lifetime of an animal, these memory cells remember each specific pathogen encountered and can mount a strong response if the pathogen is detected again.

This is "adaptive" because it occurs during the lifetime of an individual as an adaptation to infection with that pathogen and prepares the immune system for future challenges. Immunological memory can be in the form of either passive short-term memory or active long-term memory.

Newborn infants have no prior exposure to microbes and are particularly vulnerable to infection. Several layers of passive protection are provided by the mother. During pregnancy , a particular type of antibody, called IgG , is transported from mother to baby directly through the placenta , so human babies have high levels of antibodies even at birth, with the same range of antigen specificities as their mother.

This passive immunity is usually short-term, lasting from a few days up to several months. In medicine, protective passive immunity can also be transferred artificially from one individual to another via antibody-rich serum. Long-term active memory is acquired following infection by activation of B and T cells. Active immunity can also be generated artificially, through vaccination.

The principle behind vaccination also called immunization is to introduce an antigen from a pathogen in order to stimulate the immune system and develop specific immunity against that particular pathogen without causing disease associated with that organism.

With infectious disease remaining one of the leading causes of death in the human population, vaccination represents the most effective manipulation of the immune system mankind has developed. Most viral vaccines are based on live attenuated viruses, while many bacterial vaccines are based on acellular components of micro-organisms, including harmless toxin components. The immune system is a remarkably effective structure that incorporates specificity, inducibility and adaptation.

Failures of host defense do occur, however, and fall into three broad categories: Immunodeficiencies occur when one or more of the components of the immune system are inactive. The ability of the immune system to respond to pathogens is diminished in both the young and the elderly , with immune responses beginning to decline at around 50 years of age due to immunosenescence. Additionally, the loss of the thymus at an early age through genetic mutation or surgical removal results in severe immunodeficiency and a high susceptibility to infection.

Immunodeficiencies can also be inherited or ' acquired'. AIDS and some types of cancer cause acquired immunodeficiency. Overactive immune responses comprise the other end of immune dysfunction, particularly the autoimmune disorders. Here, the immune system fails to properly distinguish between self and non-self, and attacks part of the body.

Under normal circumstances, many T cells and antibodies react with "self" peptides. Hypersensitivity is an immune response that damages the body's own tissues.

Type I hypersensitivity is an immediate or anaphylactic reaction, often associated with allergy. Symptoms can range from mild discomfort to death. Type I hypersensitivity is mediated by IgE , which triggers degranulation of mast cells and basophils when cross-linked by antigen. This is also called antibody-dependent or cytotoxic hypersensitivity, and is mediated by IgG and IgM antibodies.

Type IV reactions are involved in many autoimmune and infectious diseases, but may also involve contact dermatitis poison ivy. These reactions are mediated by T cells , monocytes , and macrophages. Inflammation is one of the first responses of the immune system to infection, [28] but it can appear without known cause.

It is likely that a multicomponent, adaptive immune system arose with the first vertebrates , as invertebrates do not generate lymphocytes or an antibody-based humoral response.

Immune systems appear even in the structurally most simple forms of life, with bacteria using a unique defense mechanism, called the restriction modification system to protect themselves from viral pathogens, called bacteriophages. Pattern recognition receptors are proteins used by nearly all organisms to identify molecules associated with pathogens. Antimicrobial peptides called defensins are an evolutionarily conserved component of the innate immune response found in all animals and plants, and represent the main form of invertebrate systemic immunity.

Ribonucleases and the RNA interference pathway are conserved across all eukaryotes , and are thought to play a role in the immune response to viruses. Unlike animals, plants lack phagocytic cells, but many plant immune responses involve systemic chemical signals that are sent through a plant.

Systemic acquired resistance SAR is a type of defensive response used by plants that renders the entire plant resistant to a particular infectious agent. Another important role of the immune system is to identify and eliminate tumors. This is called immune surveillance. The transformed cells of tumors express antigens that are not found on normal cells. To the immune system, these antigens appear foreign, and their presence causes immune cells to attack the transformed tumor cells.

The antigens expressed by tumors have several sources; [90] some are derived from oncogenic viruses like human papillomavirus , which causes cervical cancer , [91] while others are the organism's own proteins that occur at low levels in normal cells but reach high levels in tumor cells. One example is an enzyme called tyrosinase that, when expressed at high levels, transforms certain skin cells e. The main response of the immune system to tumors is to destroy the abnormal cells using killer T cells, sometimes with the assistance of helper T cells.

This allows killer T cells to recognize the tumor cell as abnormal. Clearly, some tumors evade the immune system and go on to become cancers. Paradoxically, macrophages can promote tumor growth [] when tumor cells send out cytokines that attract macrophages, which then generate cytokines and growth factors such as tumor-necrosis factor alpha that nurture tumor development or promote stem-cell-like plasticity. The immune system is involved in many aspects of physiological regulation in the body.

The immune system interacts intimately with other systems, such as the endocrine [] [] and the nervous [] [] [] systems. The immune system also plays a crucial role in embryogenesis development of the embryo , as well as in tissue repair and regeneration.

Hormones can act as immunomodulators , altering the sensitivity of the immune system. For example, female sex hormones are known immunostimulators of both adaptive [] and innate immune responses. By contrast, male sex hormones such as testosterone seem to be immunosuppressive. When a T-cell encounters a foreign pathogen , it extends a vitamin D receptor. This is essentially a signaling device that allows the T-cell to bind to the active form of vitamin D , the steroid hormone calcitriol.

T-cells have a symbiotic relationship with vitamin D. Not only does the T-cell extend a vitamin D receptor, in essence asking to bind to the steroid hormone version of vitamin D, calcitriol, but the T-cell expresses the gene CYP27B1 , which is the gene responsible for converting the pre-hormone version of vitamin D, calcidiol into the steroid hormone version, calcitriol. Only after binding to calcitriol can T-cells perform their intended function. Other immune system cells that are known to express CYP27B1 and thus activate vitamin D calcidiol, are dendritic cells , keratinocytes and macrophages.

It is conjectured that a progressive decline in hormone levels with age is partially responsible for weakened immune responses in aging individuals. As people age, two things happen that negatively affect their vitamin D levels. First, they stay indoors more due to decreased activity levels. This means that they get less sun and therefore produce less cholecalciferol via UVB radiation.

Second, as a person ages the skin becomes less adept at producing vitamin D. The immune system is affected by sleep and rest, [] and sleep deprivation is detrimental to immune function.

When suffering from sleep deprivation, active immunizations may have a diminished effect and may result in lower antibody production, and a lower immune response, than would be noted in a well-rested individual. Additionally, proteins such as NFIL3 , which have been shown to be closely intertwined with both T-cell differentiation and our circadian rhythms, can be affected through the disturbance of natural light and dark cycles through instances of sleep deprivation, shift work, etc.

As a result, these disruptions can lead to an increase in chronic conditions such as heart disease, chronic pain, and asthma. In addition to the negative consequences of sleep deprivation, sleep and the intertwined circadian system have been shown to have strong regulatory effects on immunological functions affecting both the innate and the adaptive immunity.

First, during the early slow-wave-sleep stage, a sudden drop in blood levels of cortisol , epinephrine , and norepinephrine induce increased blood levels of the hormones leptin, pituitary growth hormone, and prolactin. These signals induce a pro-inflammatory state through the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1, interleukin , TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. These cytokines then stimulate immune functions such as immune cells activation, proliferation, and differentiation.

It is during this time that undifferentiated, or less differentiated, like naïve and central memory T cells, peak i. This milieu is also thought to support the formation of long-lasting immune memory through the initiation of Th1 immune responses. In contrast, during wake periods differentiated effector cells, such as cytotoxic natural killer cells and CTLs cytotoxic T lymphocytes , peak in order to elicit an effective response against any intruding pathogens.

As well during awake active times, anti-inflammatory molecules, such as cortisol and catecholamines , peak. There are two theories as to why the pro-inflammatory state is reserved for sleep time. First, inflammation would cause serious cognitive and physical impairments if it were to occur during wake times. Second, inflammation may occur during sleep times due to the presence of melatonin. Inflammation causes a great deal of oxidative stress and the presence of melatonin during sleep times could actively counteract free radical production during this time.

Overnutrition is associated with diseases such as diabetes and obesity , which are known to affect immune function. More moderate malnutrition, as well as certain specific trace mineral and nutrient deficiencies, can also compromise the immune response.

Foods rich in certain fatty acids may foster a healthy immune system. The immune system, particularly the innate component, plays a decisive role in tissue repair after an insult. The plasticity of immune cells and the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory signals are crucial aspects of efficient tissue repair.

According to one hypothesis, organisms that can regenerate could be less immunocompetent than organisms that cannot regenerate. The immune response can be manipulated to suppress unwanted responses resulting from autoimmunity, allergy, and transplant rejection , and to stimulate protective responses against pathogens that largely elude the immune system see immunization or cancer.

Immunosuppressive drugs are used to control autoimmune disorders or inflammation when excessive tissue damage occurs, and to prevent transplant rejection after an organ transplant. Anti-inflammatory drugs are often used to control the effects of inflammation. Glucocorticoids are the most powerful of these drugs; however, these drugs can have many undesirable side effects , such as central obesity , hyperglycemia , osteoporosis , and their use must be tightly controlled.

Cytotoxic drugs inhibit the immune response by killing dividing cells such as activated T cells. However, the killing is indiscriminate and other constantly dividing cells and their organs are affected, which causes toxic side effects. Cancer immunotherapy covers the medical ways to stimulate the immune system to attack cancer tumours. Immunology is strongly experimental in everyday practice but is also characterized by an ongoing theoretical attitude.

Many theories have been suggested in immunology from the end of the nineteenth century up to the present time. The end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century saw a battle between "cellular" and "humoral" theories of immunity. In the mids, Frank Burnet , inspired by a suggestion made by Niels Jerne , [] formulated the clonal selection theory CST of immunity. More recently, several theoretical frameworks have been suggested in immunology, including " autopoietic " views, [] "cognitive immune" views, [] the " danger model " or "danger theory" , [] and the "discontinuity" theory.

This limits the effectiveness of drugs based on larger peptides and proteins which are typically larger than Da. In some cases, the drug itself is not immunogenic, but may be co-administered with an immunogenic compound, as is sometimes the case for Taxol.

Computational methods have been developed to predict the immunogenicity of peptides and proteins, which are particularly useful in designing therapeutic antibodies, assessing likely virulence of mutations in viral coat particles, and validation of proposed peptide-based drug treatments.

Early techniques relied mainly on the observation that hydrophilic amino acids are overrepresented in epitope regions than hydrophobic amino acids; [] however, more recent developments rely on machine learning techniques using databases of existing known epitopes, usually on well-studied virus proteins, as a training set. The success of any pathogen depends on its ability to elude host immune responses.

Therefore, pathogens evolved several methods that allow them to successfully infect a host, while evading detection or destruction by the immune system. These proteins are often used to shut down host defenses.

An evasion strategy used by several pathogens to avoid the innate immune system is to hide within the cells of their host also called intracellular pathogenesis. Here, a pathogen spends most of its life-cycle inside host cells, where it is shielded from direct contact with immune cells, antibodies and complement. Some examples of intracellular pathogens include viruses, the food poisoning bacterium Salmonella and the eukaryotic parasites that cause malaria Plasmodium falciparum and leishmaniasis Leishmania spp.

Other bacteria, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis , live inside a protective capsule that prevents lysis by complement. Such biofilms are present in many successful infections, e. The mechanisms used to evade the adaptive immune system are more complicated. This is called antigenic variation. An example is HIV, which mutates rapidly, so the proteins on its viral envelope that are essential for entry into its host target cell are constantly changing.

These frequent changes in antigens may explain the failures of vaccines directed at this virus. In HIV, the envelope that covers the virion is formed from the outermost membrane of the host cell; such "self-cloaked" viruses make it difficult for the immune system to identify them as "non-self" structures. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 13 August A biological system that protects an organism against disease.

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Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Journal of Immunological Methods. Journal of Cell Science. Current Opinion in Cell Biology. Inflammation and Fever from Pathophysiology: Computing Centre, Slovak Academy of Sciences: Archived from the original on 11 July Journal of Leukocyte Biology. Annual Review of Immunology. Methods in Molecular Biology. Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. Innate-Adaptive Immune Intrinsic Crosstalk". Journal of Immunology Research.

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