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Meat could be up to four times as expensive as bread. Fish was up to 16 times as costly, and was expensive even for coastal populations. This meant that fasts could mean an especially meager diet for those who could not afford alternatives to meat and animal products like milk and eggs.

It was only after the Black Death had eradicated up to half of the European population that meat became more common even for poorer people. The drastic reduction in many populated areas resulted in a labor shortage, meaning that wages dramatically increased. It also left vast areas of farmland untended, making them available for pasture and putting more meat on the market. Although less prestigious than other animal meats, and often seen as merely an alternative to meat on fast days, seafood was the mainstay of many coastal populations.

Also included were the beaver , due to its scaly tail and considerable time spent in water, and barnacle geese , due to the belief that they developed underwater in the form of barnacles. The Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II examined barnacles and noted no evidence of any bird-like embryo in them, and the secretary of Leo of Rozmital wrote a very skeptical account of his reaction to being served barnacle goose at a fish-day dinner in Especially important was the fishing and trade in herring and cod in the Atlantic and the Baltic Sea.

The herring was of unprecedented significance to the economy of much of Northern Europe, and it was one of the most common commodities traded by the Hanseatic League , a powerful north German alliance of trading guilds. Kippers made from herring caught in the North Sea could be found in markets as far away as Constantinople.

Stockfish , cod that was split down the middle, fixed to a pole and dried, was very common, though preparation could be time-consuming, and meant beating the dried fish with a mallet before soaking it in water. A wide range of mollusks including oysters , mussels and scallops were eaten by coastal and river-dwelling populations, and freshwater crayfish were seen as a desirable alternative to meat during fish days. Compared to meat, fish was much more expensive for inland populations, especially in Central Europe, and therefore not an option for most.

Freshwater fish such as pike , carp , bream , perch , lamprey and trout were common. While in modern times, water is often drunk with a meal, in the Middle Ages, however, concerns over purity, medical recommendations and its low prestige value made it less favored, and alcoholic beverages were preferred. They were seen as more nutritious and beneficial to digestion than water, with the invaluable bonus of being less prone to putrefaction due to the alcohol content.

Wine was consumed on a daily basis in most of France and all over the Western Mediterranean wherever grapes were cultivated. Further north it remained the preferred drink of the bourgeoisie and the nobility who could afford it, and far less common among peasants and workers. The drink of commoners in the northern parts of the continent was primarily beer or ale. Juices , as well as wines, of a multitude of fruits and berries had been known at least since Roman antiquity and were still consumed in the Middle Ages: Medieval drinks that have survived to this day include prunellé from wild plums modern-day slivovitz , mulberry gin and blackberry wine.

Many variants of mead have been found in medieval recipes, with or without alcoholic content. However, the honey -based drink became less common as a table beverage towards the end of the period and was eventually relegated to medicinal use.

This is partially true since mead bore great symbolic value at important occasions. When agreeing on treaties and other important affairs of state, mead was often presented as a ceremonial gift. It was also common at weddings and baptismal parties, though in limited quantity due to its high price. In medieval Poland , mead had a status equivalent to that of imported luxuries, such as spices and wines. Plain milk was not consumed by adults except the poor or sick, being reserved for the very young or elderly, and then usually as buttermilk or whey.

Fresh milk was overall less common than other dairy products because of the lack of technology to keep it from spoiling. However, neither of these non-alcoholic social drinks were consumed in Europe before the late 16th and early 17th century.

Wine was commonly drunk and was also regarded as the most prestigious and healthy choice. According to Galen 's dietetics it was considered hot and dry but these qualities were moderated when wine was watered down. Unlike water or beer, which were considered cold and moist, consumption of wine in moderation especially red wine was, among other things, believed to aid digestion, generate good blood and brighten the mood.

The first pressing was made into the finest and most expensive wines which were reserved for the upper classes. The second and third pressings were subsequently of lower quality and alcohol content. Common folk usually had to settle for a cheap white or rosé from a second or even third pressing, meaning that it could be consumed in quite generous amounts without leading to heavy intoxication.

For the poorest or the most pious , watered-down vinegar similar to Ancient Roman posca would often be the only available choice. The aging of high quality red wine required specialized knowledge as well as expensive storage and equipment, and resulted in an even more expensive end product. Judging from the advice given in many medieval documents on how to salvage wine that bore signs of going bad, preservation must have been a widespread problem.

Even if vinegar was a common ingredient, there was only so much of it that could be used. In the 14th century cookbook Le Viandier there are several methods for salvaging spoiling wine; making sure that the wine barrels are always topped up or adding a mixture of dried and boiled white grape seeds with the ash of dried and burnt lees of white wine were both effective bactericides , even if the chemical processes were not understood at the time.

Wine was believed to act as a kind of vaporizer and conduit of other foodstuffs to every part of the body, and the addition of fragrant and exotic spices would make it even more wholesome. Spiced wines were usually made by mixing an ordinary red wine with an assortment of spices such as ginger , cardamom , pepper , grains of paradise , nutmeg , cloves and sugar.

These would be contained in small bags which were either steeped in wine or had liquid poured over them to produce hypocras and claré. By the 14th century, bagged spice mixes could be bought ready-made from spice merchants. While wine was the most common table beverage in much of Europe, this was not the case in the northern regions where grapes were not cultivated. Those who could afford it drank imported wine, but even for nobility in these areas it was common to drink beer or ale , particularly towards the end of the Middle Ages.

In England , the Low Countries , northern Germany , Poland and Scandinavia , beer was consumed on a daily basis by people of all social classes and age groups. For most medieval Europeans, it was a humble brew compared with common southern drinks and cooking ingredients, such as wine, lemons and olive oil. Even comparatively exotic products like camel 's milk and gazelle meat generally received more positive attention in medical texts.

Beer was just an acceptable alternative and was assigned various negative qualities. In , the Sienese physician Aldobrandino described beer in the following way:. But from whichever it is made, whether from oats, barley or wheat, it harms the head and the stomach, it causes bad breath and ruins the teeth , it fills the stomach with bad fumes, and as a result anyone who drinks it along with wine becomes drunk quickly; but it does have the property of facilitating urination and makes one's flesh white and smooth.

The intoxicating effect of beer was believed to last longer than that of wine, but it was also admitted that it did not create the "false thirst" associated with wine.

Though less prominent than in the north, beer was consumed in northern France and the Italian mainland. Perhaps as a consequence of the Norman conquest and the travelling of nobles between France and England, one French variant described in the 14th century cookbook Le Menagier de Paris was called godale most likely a direct borrowing from the English "good ale" and was made from barley and spelt , but without hops.

In England there were also the variants poset ale , made from hot milk and cold ale, and brakot or braggot , a spiced ale prepared much like hypocras. That hops could be used for flavoring beer had been known at least since Carolingian times, but was adopted gradually due to difficulties in establishing the appropriate proportions. Before the widespread use of hops, gruit , a mix of various herbs , had been used. Gruit had the same preserving properties as hops, though less reliable depending on what herbs were in it, and the end result was much more variable.

Another flavoring method was to increase the alcohol content, but this was more expensive and lent the beer the undesired characteristic of being a quick and heavy intoxicant.

Hops may have been widely used in England in the tenth century; they were grown in Austria by and in Finland by , and possibly much earlier. Before hops became popular as an ingredient, it was difficult to preserve this beverage for any time, and so, it was mostly consumed fresh.

Quantities of beer consumed by medieval residents of Europe, as recorded in contemporary literature, far exceed intakes in the modern world.

For example, sailors in 16th century England and Denmark received a ration of 1 imperial gallon 4. Polish peasants consumed up to 3 litres 0.

In the Early Middle Ages beer was primarily brewed in monasteries , and on a smaller scale in individual households. By the High Middle Ages breweries in the fledgling medieval towns of northern Germany began to take over production.

Though most of the breweries were small family businesses that employed at most eight to ten people, regular production allowed for investment in better equipment and increased experimentation with new recipes and brewing techniques. These operations later spread to the Netherlands in the 14th century, then to Flanders and Brabant , and reached England by the 15th century.

Hopped beer became very popular in the last decades of the Late Middle Ages. When perfected as an ingredient, hops could make beer keep for six months or more, and facilitated extensive exports. In turn, ale or beer was classified into "strong" and "small", the latter less intoxicating, regarded as a drink of temperate people, and suitable for consumption by children. As late as , John Locke stated that the only drink he considered suitable for children of all ages was small beer, while criticizing the apparently common practice among Englishmen of the time to give their children wine and strong alcohol.

By modern standards, the brewing process was relatively inefficient, but capable of producing quite strong alcohol when that was desired. One recent attempt to recreate medieval English "strong ale" using recipes and techniques of the era albeit with the use of modern yeast strains yielded a strongly alcoholic brew with original gravity of 1. The ancient Greeks and Romans knew of the technique of distillation , but it was not practiced on a major scale in Europe until some time around the 12th century, when Arabic innovations in the field combined with water-cooled glass alembics were introduced.

Distillation was believed by medieval scholars to produce the essence of the liquid being purified, and the term aqua vitae "water of life" was used as a generic term for all kinds of distillates. Alcoholic distillates were also occasionally used to create dazzling, fire-breathing entremets a type of entertainment dish after a course by soaking a piece of cotton in spirits. It would then be placed in the mouth of the stuffed, cooked and occasionally redressed animals, and lit just before presenting the creation.

Aqua vitae in its alcoholic forms was highly praised by medieval physicians. In Arnaldus of Villanova wrote that "[i]t prolongs good health, dissipates superfluous humours, reanimates the heart and maintains youth. By the 13th century, Hausbrand literally "home-burnt" from gebrannter wein, brandwein ; "burnt [distilled] wine" was commonplace, marking the origin of brandy. Towards the end of the Late Middle Ages, the consumption of spirits became so ingrained even among the general population that restrictions on sales and production began to appear in the late 15th century.

In the city of Nuremberg issued restrictions on the selling of aquavit on Sundays and official holidays. Spices were among the most luxurious products available in the Middle Ages, the most common being black pepper , cinnamon and the cheaper alternative cassia , cumin , nutmeg , ginger and cloves. They all had to be imported from plantations in Asia and Africa , which made them extremely expensive, and gave them social cachet such that pepper for example was hoarded, traded and conspicuously donated in the manner of gold bullion.

The value of these goods was the equivalent of a yearly supply of grain for 1. Sugar , unlike today, was considered to be a type of spice due to its high cost and humoral qualities. Even when a dish was dominated by a single flavor it was usually combined with another to produce a compound taste, for example parsley and cloves or pepper and ginger.

Common herbs such as sage , mustard , and parsley were grown and used in cooking all over Europe, as were caraway , mint , dill and fennel. Many of these plants grew throughout all of Europe or were cultivated in gardens, and were a cheaper alternative to exotic spices.

Mustard was particularly popular with meat products and was described by Hildegard of Bingen — as poor man's food. While locally grown herbs were less prestigious than spices, they were still used in upper-class food, but were then usually less prominent or included merely as coloring. Anise was used to flavor fish and chicken dishes, and its seeds were served as sugar-coated comfits. Surviving medieval recipes frequently call for flavoring with a number of sour, tart liquids.

Wine, verjuice the juice of unripe grapes or fruits vinegar and the juices of various fruits, especially those with tart flavors, were almost universal and a hallmark of late medieval cooking.

In combination with sweeteners and spices, it produced a distinctive "pungeant, fruity" flavor. Equally common, and used to complement the tanginess of these ingredients, were sweet almonds. They were used in a variety of ways: This last type of non-dairy milk product is probably the single most common ingredient in late medieval cooking and blended the aroma of spices and sour liquids with a mild taste and creamy texture.

Salt was ubiquitous and indispensable in medieval cooking. Salting and drying was the most common form of food preservation and meant that fish and meat in particular were often heavily salted.

Many medieval recipes specifically warn against oversalting and there were recommendations for soaking certain products in water to get rid of excess salt. The richer the host, and the more prestigious the guest, the more elaborate would be the container in which it was served and the higher the quality and price of the salt. Wealthy guests were seated " above the salt ", while others sat "below the salt", where salt cellars were made of pewter, precious metals or other fine materials, often intricately decorated.

The rank of a diner also decided how finely ground and white the salt was. Salt for cooking, preservation or for use by common people was coarser; sea salt, or "bay salt", in particular, had more impurities, and was described in colors ranging from black to green.

Expensive salt, on the other hand, looked like the standard commercial salt common today. The term " dessert " comes from the Old French desservir , "to clear a table", literally "to un-serve", and originated during the Middle Ages. It would typically consist of dragées and mulled wine accompanied by aged cheese , and by the Late Middle Ages could also include fresh fruit covered in sugar, honey or syrup and boiled-down fruit pastes.

Sugar , from its first appearance in Europe, was viewed as much as a drug as a sweetener; its long-lived medieval reputation as an exotic luxury encouraged its appearance in elite contexts accompanying meats and other dishes that to modern taste are more naturally savoury. There was a wide variety of fritters , crêpes with sugar, sweet custards and darioles , almond milk and eggs in a pastry shell that could also include fruit and sometimes even bone marrow or fish.

Marzipan in many forms was well known in Italy and southern France by the s and is assumed to be of Arab origin. The English chefs also had a penchant for using flower petals such as roses , violets , and elder flowers. An early form of quiche can be found in Forme of Cury , a 14th-century recipe collection, as a Torte de Bry with a cheese and egg yolk filling.

The ever-present candied ginger, coriander , aniseed and other spices were referred to as épices de chambre "parlor spices" and were taken as digestibles at the end of a meal to "close" the stomach. Just like Montpellier , Sicily was once famous for its comfits , nougat candy torrone , or turrón in Spanish and almond clusters confetti. From the south, the Arabs also brought the art of ice cream making that produced sorbet and several examples of sweet cakes and pastries; cassata alla Siciliana from Arabic qas'ah , the term for the terra cotta bowl with which it was shaped , made from marzipan, sponge cake and sweetened ricotta and cannoli alla Siciliana , originally cappelli di turchi "Turkish hats" , fried, chilled pastry tubes with a sweet cheese filling.

Research into medieval foodways was, until around , a much neglected field of study. Misconceptions and outright errors were common among historians, and are still present in as a part of the popular view of the Middle Ages as a backward, primitive and barbaric era. Medieval cookery was described as revolting due to the often unfamiliar combination of flavors, the perceived lack of vegetables and a liberal use of spices. The preservation techniques available at the time, although crude by today's standards, were perfectly adequate.

The astronomical cost and high prestige of spices, and thereby the reputation of the host, would have been effectively undone if wasted on cheap and poorly handled foods. The common method of grinding and mashing ingredients into pastes and the many potages and sauces has been used as an argument that most adults within the medieval nobility lost their teeth at an early age, and hence were forced to eat nothing but porridge, soup and ground-up meat.

The image of nobles gumming their way through multi-course meals of nothing but mush has lived side by side with the contradictory apparition of the "mob of uncouth louts disguised as noble lords who, when not actually hurling huge joints of greasy meat at one another across the banquet hall, are engaged in tearing at them with a perfectly healthy complement of incisors, canines, bicuspids and molars".

The numerous descriptions of banquets from the later Middle Ages concentrated on the pageantry of the event rather than the minutiae of the food, which was not the same for most banqueters as those choice mets served at the high table. Banquet dishes were apart from mainstream of cuisine, and have been described as "the outcome of grand banquets serving political ambition rather than gastronomy ; today as yesterday" by historian Maguelonne Toussant-Samat.

Cookbooks , or more specifically, recipe collections, compiled in the Middle Ages are among the most important historical sources for medieval cuisine. The first cookbooks began to appear towards the end of the 13th century.

The Liber de coquina , perhaps originating near Naples , and the Tractatus de modo preparandi have found a modern editor in Marianne Mulon, and a cookbook from Assisi found at Châlons-sur-Marne has been edited by Maguelonne Toussaint-Samat. Few in a kitchen, at those times, would have been able to read, and working texts have a low survival rate.

The recipes were often brief and did not give precise quantities. Cooking times and temperatures were seldom specified since accurate portable clocks were not available and since all cooking was done with fire.

At best, cooking times could be specified as the time it took to say a certain number of prayers or how long it took to walk around a certain field. Professional cooks were taught their trade through apprenticeship and practical training, working their way up in the highly defined kitchen hierarchy. A medieval cook employed in a large household would most likely have been able to plan and produce a meal without the help of recipes or written instruction. Due to the generally good condition of surviving manuscripts it has been proposed by food historian Terence Scully that they were records of household practices intended for the wealthy and literate master of a household, such as the Ménagier de Paris from the late 14th century.

Over 70 collections of medieval recipes survive today, written in several major European languages. The repertory of housekeeping instructions laid down by manuscripts like the Ménagier de Paris also include many details of overseeing correct preparations in the kitchen. Towards the onset of the early modern period , in , the Vatican librarian Bartolomeo Platina wrote De honesta voluptate et valetudine "On honourable pleasure and health" and the physician Iodocus Willich edited Apicius in Zurich in High-status exotic spices and rarities like ginger , pepper , cloves , sesame , citron leaves and "onions of Escalon" [] all appear in an eighth-century list of spices that the Carolingian cook should have at hand.

Anatomy and Physiology for Kinesiology. A detailed study of anatomy and physiology of the human cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal and nervous systems. Emphasis will be placed on the anatomical factors that cause human movement and application to common exercise-related injuries. Anatomy laboratory hours may be required. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of human movement through analysis of video and biomechanical data.

Application of Biomechanics to sports performance enhancement and injury prevention. The study of the human body in sports motion and sport objects in motion. The application of mechanical principles, kinematics, and kinetics. Biomechanics laboratory hours are required. Development, organization, and delivery of appropriate physical activities for children through the adolescent stage. Some fieldwork observation experiences may be required.

Laboratory exercises demonstrating principles of exercise physiology. Topics include metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neuromuscular responses to physical activity and exercise. A study of the adaptation and effects of the body to physiological stress.

Emphasis will be placed on the physiology of training, metabolism and work capacity, and electrocardiography. Health Related Fitness Assessment Laboratory. This course includes laboratory and clinical measurements of aerobic capacity, balance, body composition, electrocardiography, flexibility, muscular endurance, muscular strength, and pulmonary function.

Students are required to demonstrate competence in administering health related physical fitness. Health Related Fitness Assessment. A study of the principles and concepts of fitness measurement. Topics include graded exercise testing, electrocardiography, assessment of aerobic capacity, body composition, flexibility, muscular strength, muscular endurance, and pulmonary function.

Fitness Programming and Exercise Prescription. A study and application of principles and concepts related to designing exercise programs. The target population includes apparently healthy adults and individuals with special considerations, including cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, obesity, diabetes, pregnancy, and children.

A detailed examination of the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems. This course focuses on bones. The etiology and pathophysiology of common sport and exercise related injuries to the musculoskeleton will be introduced. Laboratory examination of the skeletal system may be required. An investigation of psychological processes and behaviors related to participation in exercise and physical activities.

Psychological effects of exercise, motives for fitness, exercise adherence, and fitness counseling. This course is designed to introduce students to a variety of therapeutic modalities currently used in clinical rehabilitation.

Application of test, measurement, and evaluation theory. Emphasis is on proper selection and administration of tests, appropriate evaluation of test results using basic statistical procedures, and assignment of grades. Introduction to Sport Psychology. This course involves an in-depth study of the psychological factors that underlie and support human behavior and performance, particularly as it relates to sports. This course introduces contemporary and practical theories regarding mental processes and applicable uses for this information.

Formerly titled "Psychosocial Aspects of Exercise and Sport. Evaluation of Athletic Injuries. This course deals in depth with issues related to athletic training, including assessment of injuries, and proper taping and wrapping techniques.

Formerly titled "Advanced Athletic Training. Teaching Secondary Physical Education. Examination of current trends, issues, and pedagogical approaches to the teaching and learning of physical education in the secondary school curriculum. Contemporary programming, behavior management strategies, and community outreach activities will be emphasized. Weekly fieldwork in the public schools at the secondary school level is required. Restricted course; advisor code required for registration.

In-depth study of exercise physiology, emphasizing application of physiological principles of training for physical fitness and sport performance, graded exercise testing, and professional issues. This course includes introduction to research in exercise physiology.

This course examines various therapeutic exercises and programs used in the treatment and rehabilitation of exercise-related injuries. This course will address the basic concepts of nutrition from a scientific basis, applying these concepts to understanding of food nutritional labeling, dietary recommendations for health and fitness, as well as exercise or sport performance enhancement.

This course will examine the essential knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary for exercise physiology practiced in clinical settings. Topics will include diseases of the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and metabolic systems. Skills in administering graded exercise testing with ECG monitoring, pulmonary function testing, and screening for metabolic disease will be emphasized in laboratory settings. Additionally, exercise prescription and programming will be studied for persons with chronic disease.

Teaching Elementary Physical Education. Examination of current trends, issues, and pedagogical approaches to teaching and facilitating learning of physical education in the elementary school curriculum. Contemporary programming, problem solving, and community outreach activities will be emphasized. Weekly fieldwork in the public schools at the elementary school level is required.

Study of concepts of movement awareness and the elements of movement that are the basis of all movement capacities. Application of these concepts to the learning of motor skills will be included. Laboratory exercises demonstrating the principles of motor learning and motor control. Functional applications of motor control and learning theory in skill instruction and sports performance.

Motor learning laboratory hours are required. Theory of coaching relevant to athletics. Emphasis on organization and content involved in coaching sports. The sport content may vary in different semesters between baseball, basketball, football, soccer, softball, and volleyball.

Course may be repeated for credit. A developmental and functional approach to the study of disabilities in physical activity. Legislation, pathologies, and adaptation principles.

Field experience is required throughout the course. Clinical Applications of Athletic Injuries. Consent of instructor and admission to the Athletic Training concentration or Kinesiology and Health Science concentration. This course provides practical applications in prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of athletic injuries, and includes hours of supervised field, laboratory and clinical experiences in athletic training.

May be repeated for credit for a maximum of 6 semester credit hours. Practicum in Kinesiology Research. Admission to Kinesiology major and consent of Instructor.

This course provides supervised research experience in various areas of kinesiology. May be repeated for credit, but not more than 6 semester credit hours will apply to a bachelor's degree. Supervised internship with appropriate agency in the field of kinesiology. First Aid and CPR certification and consent of instructor. Supervised coaching practicum with appropriate agency in the field of kinesiology.

Formerly titled "Practicum in Kinesiology. Organized course offering the opportunity for specialized study not normally or not often available as part of the regular course offerings. Students will learn and apply counseling techniques to promote the adoption of health-promoting lifestyle behaviors in diverse populations. Basic counseling theories will be introduced. Capstone course and seminar for students pursuing training and certification in exercise science, and preparation for graduate studies.

Introduction to Nutritional Sciences. Basic concepts related to the classification and functions of nutrients; the process of digestion, absorption, transport, utilization, and storage of nutrients in humans and the interaction between diet and health.

Applied Food Science Practicum. The application of concepts related to the chemical, physical, sensory, and nutritional properties of food in menu planning, food preparation, and recipe modification. Introduction to Nutrition and Dietetics Careers. Nutrition and Dietetics majors only.

General overview of nutrition and dietetics as a profession, including career opportunities, scope of practice, credentialing, code of ethics, and collaboration with other disciplines. Self-directed modules on medical terminology, word roots, prefixes and suffixes will be integrated into the course content.

Practicum related to the procurement, preparation, and delivery of food in large foodservice operations. Concepts related to the chemical, physical, sensory, and nutritional properties of food in menu planning, food preparation, and recipe modification.

Nutrition and Health Assessment. Methods, tools, and interpretation of data in assessing the nutritional status of individuals including dietary, anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical assessment, as well as other measurements of health in individuals and the community.

Nutrition Counseling and Education. Discussion of theories of learning and behavior modification, models and techniques, communication skills, evaluation methods, and cultural competence in nutrition counseling and education; and application of concepts to facilitate behavioral change.

Nutrition in the Life Span. Nutritional needs during various stages of the lifecycle as influenced by physiologic, cultural, and environmental factors. Production and Foodservice System Management I. Principles related to the menu planning, food sanitation and safety, procurement, production, marketing, and materials management in foodservice operations Generally offered: Advanced discussion of nutrient structure, function and interaction, metabolic pathways, and regulation and integration of metabolism.

Application of learned strategies in meaningful community service through collaborative tasks performed at various community programs. Service learning activities are aimed at enriching the life experiences of students through civic responsibility and community outreach. Nutrition Care Process Practicum. A problem-based approach to dietetics practice using case simulations and studies; application of basic nutritional assessment skills, nutritional diagnosis, intervention, and monitoring in different settings; practice skills in counseling and nutrition education.

Theories and principles related to the foodservice, systems management including leadership, decision-making, human resources, and financial management of operations. Medical Nutrition Therapy I. Pathophysiology and the application of the nutritional care process in the treatment of simple human diseases and conditions, part 1.

Nutrition-related issues in public health, various community resources, agencies, and programs involved in health promotion and disease prevention. Nutrition in Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Medical Nutrition Therapy II. Continuation of Advanced Medical Nutrition I; and review of the pathophysiology and the application of the nutritional care process in the treatment of more complex human disease and conditions. Current Issues in Nutrition.

In-depth discussion and analysis of emerging trends, concepts, and controversies in nutritional sciences, including application of evidence-based principles in the discussion.

Independent Study in Nutrition and Dietetics. An exploration of topics of interest to the student in Nutrition and Dietetics.

Students work under the close supervision of a faculty member to conduct research, intense study, or a project related to the selected topic. Introduction to Public Health. Introduces students to the discipline of public health. It will cover a variety of disciplines to the basic tenets of public health. The course will also cover the role of public health in a global society.

Data Management in Public Health. Study of the skills required to design, organize and implement a data management system in public health applications. It will cover an introduction to data preparation for statistical analysis, development of organizational tools, methods of data acquisition, data collection form design, principles of database development, quality control of data, and data security.

Provides the student with basic knowledge about epidemiological applications in a behavioral area. It covers behavioral and social environmental issues related to disease etiology, premature morbidity and mortality patterns. Provides an overview of the epidemiology of specific health-related behaviors, the relationships between these behaviors and health outcomes, and available evidence for the effectiveness and appropriateness of various approaches to modification of these behaviors.

Utilizes case discussion seminars to appraise the investigative methods and research designs for studying disease outbreaks and new epidemics. Historical and current cases will include examples of disease outbreaks e. Each case will evaluate the background of the problem, the investigative methods employed, the results, and the interventions taken to resolve the problem.

Utilizes case discussion seminars to appraise the investigative methods and research designs for studying chronic disease, disease exposure, and ascertainment of risk.

Cases will include current examples of chronic diseases or conditions affecting population health e. Each case will evaluate the background of the problem, the investigative methods employed, the results, and the public policy and practice implications from the research. Provides the opportunity for work experience in a private or public health-related agency. Opportunities are developed in consultation with faculty advisor and on-site coordinator.

Supervised full-or part-time off-campus work experience and training in health care management. A minimum of hours of work experience is required. Individual conferences and written reports required. Special Studies in Public Health.

The University of Texas at San Antonio. Department Honors The Department of Kinesiology, Health, and Nutrition awards Department Honors to certain outstanding students and provides the opportunity for advanced study under close faculty supervision.

Admission Policy The goal of admission requirements for the Health degree is to provide undergraduate students with a program of study with the highest possible standards. To declare a Health major, a pre-health student must have: Internship Eligibility Health majors are eligible to apply for an internship if they: Appeal Process Students who wish to appeal the internship requirement due to prior work experience may do so by completing and submitting the appeal form, available from the academic advisor, with written documentation to a three-member review committee.

Core Curriculum Requirements 42 semester credit hours Students seeking the B. Core Curriculum Component Area Requirements First Year Experience Requirement 3 semester credit hours All students must complete the following course, for a total of 3 semester credit hours: Select at least 15 semester credit hours from the following list of courses: Internship Policy Experiential learning is a valuable element for kinesiology professionals.

Internship Eligibility Kinesiology majors with no concentration are eligible to apply for an internship if they: In order to declare a major in Nutrition and Dietetics, a student must meet the following criteria: Must complete all support courses and most of the Texas Core requirements with a minimum cumulative grade point average GPA of 3. Detailed information about the courses, including the Texas common course numbers may be obtained from the Undergraduate Catalog.

May not repeat a prerequisite course more than twice to meet the grade criteria. Must complete all support courses prerequisite courses by the end of the summer semester prior to entering the program in the Fall Semester. Must submit a program application, two completed reference forms program specific preferably by faculty members and a statement indicating personal career goals, knowledge of the profession, commitment, interests, and motivation.

Must have a personal interview with the program faculty by invitation. Criminal Record Check A criminal background check is required during the semesters in which a student enrolls in field-based practicums.

Certificate in Athletic Coaching All students pursuing a Certificate in Athletic Coaching must complete the following 15 semester credit hours: With Nutrisystem the food portions are designed to be just right so a person gets the nutrition he needs and still loses weight. I had to get used to eating the right sized portion instead of overeating. Once I adjusted to eating differently the plan started to really work. The plan is easy to follow and comes with instructions on how to do so.

I am losing weight easily. I am feeling healthier every day. I am enjoying the foods I am eating, and I am enjoying the compliments I am receiving on my weight loss. I joined the Nutrisystem plan because I knew I was headed in the wrong direction with my body weight. I decided to start going to a gym. However, I did not know how to start eating right. I pick the food I want to eat from the menu that Nutrisystem provides.

Nutrisystem also shows me how to plan what to eat for the day. The foods are really good. I love some of them, like most of them and only disliked one or two items out of the whole menu.

One of my favorite foods from Nutrisystem is their Mexican style tortilla soup, it's great. As far as diets go Nutrisystem is a great plan. When I was on the Nutrisystem plan it worked for me. I lost weight, learned to eat healthier and felt great. Nutrisystem is also extremely easy to follow. The plan comes with easy to follow instructions on how to use the program to work for you. When I was on the plan my wife and children would eat their food while I ate my Nutrisystem food.

Her food was hard to resist; however, I stuck to the Nutrisystem plan because their food also tastes good. I ate good food every day. Foods such as blueberry pancakes, blueberry muffins, honey mustard pretzel sticks, beef stew and broiled beef patties.

Nutrisystem truly does go to great lengths to help make losing weight easy. I wanted to lose 20 pounds, but ended up shaving off 30 pounds thanks to Nutrisystem. Nutrisystem is the best diet plan I have ever tried. I have tried to diet a few other times in my life but I could not stick to the diet.

With Nutrisystem I do not have to learn recipes. I do not have to learn to eat better foods. I do not have to count calories. I do not have to weigh food. With Nutrisystem all I have to do is follow the instructions and eat the foods Nutrisystem supplies. When I joined Nutrisystem I was afraid the food would taste terrible as I had read a review online saying so. Of course there are a few foods that do not suit my taste such as the eggs frittata; however, most of the foods are delicious.

For breakfast I can eat pancakes, blueberry pancakes, cinnamon buns or oatmeal. There are many other breakfast foods to choose from also. For lunch I can eat hearty minestrone soup or choose from many other menu items. Nutrisystem also offers great dinners, snacks and desserts. Following the Nutrisystem plan is easy and I am seeing results. I wish the weight melted off easier, but it took a while putting it on and so I expect it'll take time getting it off too. I had tried losing weight on my own a few times but it was too hard to count calories and weigh out all of my food what a time sucker!

I always got discouraged about losing the weight. With Nutrisystem I have not became discouraged because Nutrisystem makes the plan so simple to follow. While it's not fresh food the meals are frozen , it still just as great tasting. Speaking frankly, I was really afraid that I would hate the Nutrisystem food. I gave the food a try thinking it would taste like cardboard. However, I was completely wrong, the Nutrisystem food is delicious.

Breakfast, lunch, dinner, dessert and all my snacks provided by Nutrisystem are tasty. My wife loves me being on the Nutrisystem diet too. She is very impressed with the progress I have made losing weight. She just makes dinner for the family and I eat my Nutrisystem meal. Nutrisystem is a great diet plan that I personally think can help anyone lose weight.

Let's be honest here, does any man like to cook? Not only do I not like to cook, I just don't have the time to cook. That's why Nutrisystem really appealed to me when my doctor recommended it. I am a busy man who works 80 hours a week. I am also single. I just don't know how to cook, so I eat fast food quite often. I also eat at restaurants often too. The reason I go out to eat so often is because I am single, busy and do not know how to cook.

Going out to eat is just easier than learning how to cook. But eating out is expensive and has caused me to quickly add on 30 pounds that I no longer wanted. I thought if I pay to go out to eat everyday I might as well pay to eat this healthy food and lose some weight. The best part of the Nutrisystem plan is that I do not have to prepare the food and it still tastes great. I am losing weight eating healthy delicious foods. I'm happy and so is my doctor who was telling me I needed to lose weight.

I have lost nine pounds since I started the diet. With Nutrisystem you get to chose from many foods that are already prepared for you. You also get a daily menu planner and a diary to log your success in.

Nutrisystem also provides a website that includes articles, weight loss stories, blogs, chat rooms and a live counselor who is available 24 hours a day for support.

With the Nutrisystem plan I go online everyday and log onto Nutrisystem's website to see my progress. I also check the discussion group forums and talk to other men who are trying to lose weight. I enjoy using the Nutrisystem web site. The Nutrisystem plan is so simple to follow. I really can not think of any other diet plan that is as simple to use as Nutrisystem.

The food Nutrisystem offers is also excellent. My favorite food from Nutrisystem is the beef stew. I love beef stew and I would not want to give it up for a diet. However, with Nutrisystem I do not have to give up beef stew because Nutrisystem offers a beef stew dinner.

I have been on the plan for about one month now and have already lost seven pounds which wasn't happening with Bistro MD. I'm happy to say that losing weight has never been easier.

The Nutrisystem plan is very easy to follow and simple to understand. I get to eat three meals a day plus a snack and a dessert. As soon as I start to feel hungry I get to eat again. With Nutrisystem I get access to the Nutrisystem website tools too. The website is wonderful. I can log on and talk to other people from all over the world who are trying to lose weight. The other people on the website inspire me to want to lose more weight and become even healthier. The people on the website inspire to me to stick with the plan until I reach my goal.

It's a great support group. The Nutrisystem website also provides me with access to a counselor who is available 24 hours a day to chat with if I have any questions.

It's working for me and I know it will work for you too. Now if I can only get my wife on it. I need more support! I have been using Nutrisystem's plan for about two months now. I thought for sure when I started the plan that I would probably have at least one thing to complain about it; however, I was wrong.

Nutrisystem truly is a great plan. Any problems that you may read about online are obviously one off items and not a consistent trend. The basic plan is extremely easy to follow. It comes with specific instructions on how to follow it. It also comes with some great dieting tools. The best part of the plan is that it comes with healthy foods that are already prepared for me to eat.

Food wise, I love the vegetable beef soup; it is one of my favorite things to eat for lunch. I love to eat the chili with beans for dinner. So far, I love all of the foods I've tried. I haven't found one that wasn't edible.

Even the desserts and snacks taste darn good. And unlike other diets, with Nutrisystem I don't crave junk food because I get a treat everyday in the meal plan:

Nutrisystem Warning