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Moderate public health problem. The right to continue breastfeeding a child after returning to work is important since duration of leave entitlements generally is shorter than the WHO recommended duration of exclusive and continued breastfeeding. Pregnancy and maternity are potentially vulnerable time for working women and their families. Moderate public health problem Reference: Economic crises - impacts and lessons learned. Working together for health.
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Calculation of nutrient intake occur immediately providing data per ingredient, food, meal, and day in report and analysis file formats. The software includes a dietary supplement assessment module so that nutrient intake from both food and supplemental sources may be captured and quantified.
Visit the Nutrition Coordinating Center for more information about the Nutrition Data System for Research, including detailed features of the software and database, license options, support service, training workshops and certification.
Office for Technology Commercialization http: Go to the U of M home page. Search U of M Web sites. Streamlined data entry and food coding: Dietary intake data gathered by interview is entered directly into NDSR. The software searches for foods and brand products by name. Sophisticated search algorithms locate the food e. The Infant Feeding Guidelines provide health workers with the latest information on healthy feeding from birth to approximately 2 years of age.
This includes advice on breastfeeding, preparing infant formula, and introducing solid foods. Common health related concerns and how to overcome feeding difficulties are included. The Australian Dietary Guidelines use the best available scientific evidence to provide information on the types and amounts of foods, food groups and dietary patterns that aim to promote health and wellbeing, reduce the risk of diet-related conditions and reduce the risk of chronic disease.
The Australian Dietary Guidelines are for use by health professionals, policy makers, educators, food manufacturers, food retailers and researchers and encourage healthy dietary patterns to promote and maintain the nutrition-related health and wellbeing of the Australian population. The content of the Australian Dietary Guidelines applies to all healthy Australians, as well as those with common diet-related risk factors such as being overweight.
They do not apply to people who need special dietary advice for a medical condition, nor to the frail elderly. A website on the Eat for Health Program is at www. Dietary patterns characterised by excess dietary saturated fat, sodium, added sugars and alcohol are associated with increased health risk. Through the guidance of an expert working committee, this work will consider the practicality of providing specific definitions of discretionary foods and drinks.
NHMRC will use this guidance to consider a more standardised approach to identifying discretionary foods and drinks across all settings, including community, industry, consumer and healthcare environments.
As part of the review, the NHMRC will be consulting with key users, including health professionals, government and industry representatives to ensure the outcomes are relevant for promoting the health of Australians across all settings. The Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand Including the Recommended Dietary Intakes NRVs outline the intake levels of essential nutrients considered adequate to meet the nutritional needs of healthy people for prevention of nutrient deficiencies.
In addition to the risks posed by the lack of the protective qualities of breast milk, breast-milk substitutes and feeding bottles are associated with a high risk for contamination that can lead to life-threatening infections in young infants.
Infant formula is not a sterile product, and it may carry germs that can cause fatal illnesses. Artificial feeding is expensive, requires clean water, the ability of the mother or caregiver to read and comply with mixing instructions and a minimum standard of overall household hygiene.
These factors are not present in many households in the world. Frequently asked questions , These indicators provide information on national policies for legal entitlement to maternity protection, including leave from work during pregnancy and after birth, as well breastfeeding entitlements after return to work. Since the International Labour Organization ILO was founded in , international labour standards have been established to provide maternity protection for women workers. Key elements of maternity protection include: The right to cash benefits during absence for maternity leave is intended to ensure that the woman can maintain herself and her child in proper conditions of health and with a suitable standard of living.
The source of benefits is important due to potential discrimination in the labour market if employers have to bear the full costs. The right to continue breastfeeding a child after returning to work is important since duration of leave entitlements generally is shorter than the WHO recommended duration of exclusive and continued breastfeeding.
A composite indicator on maternity protection is included as a policy environment and capacity indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework. It currently uses the ILO classification of compliance with Convention on three key provisions leave duration, remuneration and source of cash benefits , but an alternative method taking into account higher standards as stated in Recommendation as well as breastfeeding entitlements is under development.
The ILO periodically publishes information on the above key indicators, including the assessment of compliance with Convention No. However, an alternative method is under development which may use a scale to indicate the degree of compliance is under development. This method will also take into account higher standards for leave duration and remuneration in Recommendation , as well as breastfeeding entitlements within both the Convention and Recommendation.
Pregnancy and maternity are potentially vulnerable time for working women and their families. Expectant and nursing mothers require special protection to prevent any potential adverse effects for them and their infants. They need adequate time to give birth, to recover from delivery process, and to nurse their children. At the same time, they also require income security and protection to ensure that they will not suffer from income loss or lose their job because of pregnancy or maternity leave.
Such protection not only ensures a woman's equal access and right to employment, it also ensures economic sustainability for the well-being of the family.
Returning to work after maternity leave has been identified as a significant cause for never starting breastfeeding, early cessation of breastfeeding and lack of exclusive breastfeeding. In most low- and middle-income countries, paid maternity leave is limited to formal sector employment or is not always provided in practice. The ILO estimates that more than million women lack economic security around childbirth with adverse effects on the health, nutrition and well-being of mothers and their children.
Maternity cash benefits for workers in the informal economy. Rollins et al Why invest, and what it will take to improve breastfeeding practices?
Database of national labour, social security and related human rights legislation. The legislative data are collected by ILO through periodical reviews of national labour and social security legislation and secondary sources, such as the International Social Security Association and International Network on Leave Policies and Research; as well as consultations with ILO experts in regional and national ILO offices around the world.
The composite indicator on maternity protection included in the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework is currently defined as whether the country has maternity protection laws or regulations in place compliant with the provisions for leave duration, remuneration and source of cash benefits in Convention Documentation for the maternity protection database http: Degree training in nutrition exists.
What does the indicator tell us? This indicator reflects the capacity of a country to train professionals in nutrition in terms of having national higher education institutions offering training in nutrition. This indicator is defined as the existence of higher education institutions offering training in nutrition in the country. Higher education training institutions include universities and other schools offering graduate and post-graduate degrees in nutrition or dietetics, including public health nutrition, community nutrition, food and nutrition policy, clinical nutrition, nutrition science and epidemiology.
Trained nutrition professionals work at facilities including health facilities as well as at population and community levels and may influence nutrition policies, and designing and implementation of nutrition intervention programmes at various levels. They also play an important role in training of other health and non-health cadres to plan and deliver nutrition interventions in various settings. It is recognized that availability, within a country, of sufficient workforce with appropriate training in nutrition will lead to better outcomes for country-specific nutrition and health concerns.
A competency framework for global public health nutrition workforce development: World Public Health Nutrition Association. Registering as Registered Nutritionist. Building systemic capacity for nutrition: Nutrition is part of medical curricula. This indicator reflects the inclusion of maternal, infant and young child nutrition in pre-service training of health personnel. This indicator is defined as the existence of pre-service training in maternal, infant and young child nutrition for health personnel.
The survey investigates training in three key areas of maternal, infant and young child nutrition, namely growth monitoring and promotion, breastfeeding and complementary feeding, and management of severe or moderate acute malnutrition.
The first two of these three training topics are relevant for all forms of malnutrition, whereas the third topic only pertains to undernutrition. Training on other topics e. Adequate training of health professionals is essential to ensure that nutrition activities are included in their regular health care activities. Nutrition counseling training changes physician behavior and improves caregiver knowledge acquisition.
Nutrition Journal ; Trained nutrition professionals density. The focus of the nutrition professional indicator is on individuals trained to pursue a nutrition professional career, described in most countries as dieticians or nutritionists including nutrition scientists, nutritional epidemiologists and public health nutritionists.
These individuals are trained sufficiently in nutrition practice to demonstrate defined competencies and to meet certification or registration requirements of national or global nutrition or dietetics professional organizations.
Dieticians and nutritionists may complete the same training and perform the same functions in some countries but not others. This indicator is defined as the number of trained nutrition professionals per , population in the country in a specified year. Validation of the indicator has shown that it can predict several maternal, infant and young child nutrition outcomes. Global nutrition monitoring framework: Density of nurses and midwi ves.
Nurse and midwife density indicates whether nurses and midwifery personnel are available to address the health care needs of a given population. It is the number of nursing and midwifery personnel and density per 10 population. These personnel include professional nurses, professional midwives, auxiliary nurses, auxiliary midwives, enrolled nurses, enrolled midwives and other personnel, such as dental nurses and primary care nurses.
Traditional attendants are not counted here but as community or traditional health workers. There is no gold standard for a sufficient health workforce to address the health care needs of a given population. It has been estimated, however, that countries with fewer than 25 health-care professionals counting only physicians, nurses and midwives per 10 population fail to achieve adequate coverage rates for selected primary health care interventions that are priorities in the Millennium Development Goals.
The World Health Report Working together for health. The World Health Report papers. G ross domestic product per capita and annual growth rate. GDP per capita purchasing power parity is the GDP divided by the midyear population, where GDP is the total value of goods and services for final use produced by resident producers in an economy, regardless of the allocation to domestic and foreign claims.
It does not include deductions for depreciation of physical capital or depletion and degradation of natural resources. Purchasing power parity indicates the rate of exchange that accounts for price differences across countries, allowing international comparisons of real output and incomes. Purchasing power parity rates allow standard comparisons of real prices among countries, just as conventional price indexes allow comparisons of real values over time; use of normal exchange rates could result in over - or undervaluation of purchasing power.
GDP per capita annual growth rate is defined as the least squares annual growth rate, calculated from constant price GDP per capita in local currency units. Higher income is usually associated with lower rates of mal nutrition. Improving income however, reduces mal nutrition to only a small degree World Bank On the basis of the correlation between growth and nutrition , it is estimated that a sustained per capita economic growth of 2. These estimates suggest that countries cannot depend on economic growth alone to reduce mal nutrition within an acceptable time.
Repositioning nutrition as central to development. A strategy for large-scale action , Human solidarity in a divided world , Official development assistance received net disbursements as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product GDP is a measure of the flow of aid, private capital and debt in comparison with the value of goods and services produced within the country. This indicator is official development assistance received as a percentage of the GDP. Net official development assistance consists of grants or loans to countries or territories from the official sector, with the main objective of promoting economic development and welfare, at concessional financial terms.
GDP is the total value of final goods and services produced within a country's borders in a year, regardless of ownership. When official development assistance makes up a large proportion of the GDP, a country is highly aid dependent, with the risk of unpredictable aid and donor-driven aid programmes.
This can affect the resources allocated to nutrition , which are often not a donor priority in the sector-wide aid strategies promoted by the Paris Declaration Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness: This indicator identifies countries with low income and food inadequacy. A country is classified by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization FAO as 'low-income food-deficit' for analytical purposes on the basis of low income and food inadequacy, and the status is agreed by the country itself.
The classification applies to countries that have a per capita income below the ceiling used by the World Bank to determine eligibility for International Development Association assistance and for year terms determined by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, applied to countries included in World Bank categories I and II. The second criterion is based on the net i. Trade volumes of a broad range of basic foodstuffs cereals, roots and tubers, pulses, oilseeds and oils other than tree crop oils, meat and dairy products are converted and aggregated by the calorie content of individual commodities.
The third criterion, which is self-exclusion, is applied when countries that meet the above two criteria specifically request to be excluded from the low-income food-deficit category. In order to avoid too frequent changes of low-income food-deficit status, usually reflecting short-term, exogenous shocks, an additional factor is taken into consideration. This factor, called 'persistence of position', postpones the 'exit' of a country from the list even if it does not meet the low-income or the food-deficit criterion, until the change in its status is verified for 3 consecutive years.
In other words, a country is taken off the list in the fourth year after confirming a sustained improvement in its position. During these 3 years, the country is considered to be in a transitional phase. The rationale behind the low-income food-deficit classification is that being both food deficit and having a low income at the same time means that the country lacks the resources not only to import food but also to produce sufficient amounts domestically.
It is the combination of these two factors that makes these countries both food insecure and susceptible to domestic and external shocks, which could affect the nutrition al status of vulnerable populations. The low-income food-deficit list is intended to capture this aspect of the food problem. In comparison with countries in other classifications commonly used for analytical and operational purposes, e. Committee on World Food Security.
Rome , June Averaged aggregate governance indicators. The world governance indicators of the World Bank Institute define governance as the traditions and institutions by which authority in a country is exercised. This includes the process by which governments are selected, monitored and replaced; the capacity of the government to formulate and implement sound policies effectively; and the respect of citizens and the state for the institutions that govern economic and social interactions among them.
The world governance indicators measure six broad definitions of governance, capturing the key elements of this definition: The averaged aggregate governance indicators in the NLIS country profile represent the aggregated average of the six world governance indicators.
The indicators represent the views of thousands of stakeholders worldwide, including respondents to household and firm surveys and experts from nongovernmental organizations, public sector agencies and providers of commercial business information. The NLIS averaged aggregate governance indicators are calculated from the average of the z scores a measure of standard deviations away from the mean of the six world governance indicators.
Each of the six indicators are expressed as the standard normal units, ranging from around The higher the score a country has, the better the assessment has it received regarding the six governance elements.
Policy-makers, civil society groups, aid donors and scholars around the world increasingly agree that good governance affects development. This consensus has emerged from a proliferation of empirical measures of institutional quality and governance, the investment climate and research World Bank Institute, For nutrition , the importance of good governance is reflected in the UNICEF conceptual framework of factors in the "control and management of resources influenced by political and ideological structures in society'' Jonsson Good governance is also recognized by countries themselves in the Voluntary Guidelines to support the progressive realization of the right to adequate food in the context of national food security FAO as an essential factor for sustained economic growth, sustainable development, the eradication of poverty and hunger and the realization of all human rights, including the right to adequate food.
Voluntary guidelines to support the progressive realization of the right to adequate food in the context of national food security , Towards an improved strategy for nutrition surveillance. Food and Nutrition Bulletin , United Nations Standing Committee on Nutrition. The fifth report on the world nutrition situation: The Worldwide Governance Indicators: Methodology and Analytical Issues September Gender inequality index GII. The Gender Inequality Index is a composite measure reflecting inequality in achievements between women and men in three dimensions: It varies between zero when women and men fare equally and one when men or women fare poorly compared to the other in all dimensions.
The Gender Inequality Index is designed to reveal the extent to which national human development achievements are eroded by gender inequality, and to provide empirical foundations for policy analysis and advocacy efforts. Low status restricts women's opportunities and freedom, giving them less interaction with others and fewer opportunities for independent behaviour, restricting the transmission of new knowledge and damaging their self-esteem and expression.
It is a particularly important determinant of two resources for care: Low status restricts women's capacity to act in their own and their children's best interests. There is a demonstrated association between women's status and malnutrition in children. Human Development Report Gender and Human Development.
Challenges for the 21st century: Gender Parity Index in primary level enrolment. This indicator of gender equality is also an indicator of Millennium Development Goal 3: The ratio of girls to boys, the gender parity index, in primary education is the ratio of the number of female students enrolled at the primary level of education to the number of male students.
To standardize the effects of the population structure of the appropriate age groups, the gross enrolment ratio for each level of education is used. The gross enrolment ratio is the number of students enrolled in primary, secondary and tertiary education, regardless of age, as a percentage of the population of official school age for the three levels. There is a demonstrated association between women's status and mal nutrition in children.
United Nations Statistics Division. Millennium Development Goals indicators. Promote gender equality and empower women. Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by , and in all levels of education no later than The global hunger index is a means of monitoring whether countries are achieving the hunger-related Millennium Development Goals.
It can be used for international ranking. The global hunger index captures three dimensions of hunger: Accordingly, the index includes three equally weighted indicators: In order to identify countries that are notably better or worse off with regard to hunger and undernutrition than would be expected from their gross national income per capita, a regression analysis is made of the global hunger index on gross national income per capita. Countries are ranked on a point scale, with 0 and being the best and worst possible scores, respectively.
Hunger is one of the world's major problems and therefore one of its most important challenges. Hunger and undernourishment form a vicious circle, which is often 'passed on' from generation to generation: The children of impoverished parents are often born underweight and are less resistant to disease; they grow up under conditions that impair their intellectual capacity for the whole of their life.
As of , FAO estimates that 1. This is the highest number since , the earliest year for which comparable statistics are available. The factors that contribute to a high global hunger index are: Countries with high hunger indexes are overwhelmingly low- or low- to middle-income countries with high levels of poverty. Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia are the regions with the highest global hunger indexes and the highest poverty rates.
These have been major causes of widespread poverty and food insecurity in most countries with high global hunger indexes. The 15 countries with the highest global hunger indexes were consistently rated by the 'Freedom House Index' as non-free or partially free with regard to political rights and civil liberties in the period Low women's status is an important contributor to child malnutrition, which in turn accounts for high global hunger indexes for South Asian countries.
Well-designed, well-implemented health and nutrition services can reduce child malnutrition substantially. Many of the countries with high global hunger indexes, especially in South Asia, do not have effective health and nutrition services that reach the most vulnerable age groups pre-pregnancy through 2 years of age.
International Food Policy Research Institute. International Food Policy Research Institute, Economic crises - impacts and lessons learned. Rome, Food and Agriculture of the United Nations, The challenge of hunger Measures being taken to reduce acute undernourishment and chronic hunger.
A global hunger index. The human development index is a summary measure of human development. The human development index is a summary composite measure of a country's average achievements in three basic aspects of human development: It is a measure of the average achievements in a country in three dimensions of human development: The HDI sets a minimum and a maximum for each dimension, called goalposts, and then shows where each country stands in relation to these goalposts, expressed as a value between 0 and 1.
The higher a country's human development, the higher its HDI value. The human development index is used to capture the attention of policy-makers, the media and nongovernmental organizations and to draw it away from the usual economic statistics to focus on human outcomes. It was created to re-emphasize that people and their capabilities should be the ultimate criteria for assessing the development of a country, not economic growth.
The human development index is also used to question national policy choices, to determine how two countries with the same level of income per person can have widely different human development outcomes. For example, two countries may have similar income per person, but the life expectancy and literacy differ greatly, so that one of the countries has a much higher human development index than the other.
These contrasts stimulate debate on government policies on health and education, to determine why what is achieved in one country is beyond the reach of the other. The human development index is also used to highlight differences within countries, between provinces or states, across genders, ethnicity and other socioeconomic groupings. Highlighting internal disparities along these lines has raised national debate in many countries.
The human development index. New Controversies, Old Critiques. Seats held by women in national parliament. This is an indicator of gender equality and empowerment of women and reflects Millennium Development Goal 3, to promote gender equality and empower women. Women's representation in parliaments is one aspect of their opportunities in political and public life, and it is therefore linked to women's empowerment.
The proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments is obtained by dividing the number of parliamentary seats occupied by women by the total number of seats occupied.
National parliaments consist of one or two chambers. For international comparisons, generally only the single or lower house is considered in calculating the indicator.
Women are underrepresented in all decision-making bodies and political parties, particularly at the higher echelons. Women still face many practical obstacles to the full exercise of their role in political life. Smith LC, Haddad L. Explaining child mal nutrition in developing countries: Indicators for monitoring the Millennium Development Goals. Definitions, rationale, concepts and sources.
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