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I can change my oil and filter without removing anything. Retrieved November 20, I owned a Civic once and it started falling apart right after the 50, mile warranty ran out. Replacement costs shall only be assessed for violations relating to threatened or endangered species of North American game or wildlife and such other species of Pennsylvania game or wildlife as designated by the commission. He now has a Mercedes and loves it.

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When life gives you a lemon car, do this Feb An American classic by an American inventor: Lay's potato chips Aug These increases would not be detectable against the natural cancer mortality of these populations. The lower bound of these mortality estimates is zero; i. The United Nations report states, "It is impossible to assess reliably, with any precision, numbers of fatal cancers caused by radiation exposure due to Chernobyl accident.

Further, radiation-induced cancers are at present indistinguishable from those due to other causes. The United Nations "Chernobyl Forum" report also addresses the social and societal impacts of the Chernobyl accident. In Canada off-site liability for a nuclear accident is insured under the Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act This means that a member of the public with a damage claim due to an accident at a nuclear reactor can obtain compensation directly from the operator, without having to prove negligence.

Component suppliers are protected from public litigation but not from litigation by an operator, for example to cover on-site damages. Under such a liability regime, the public is guaranteed an expedited claims process, and the right to collect on all justified claims. For the benefit of nuclear operators and suppliers, such legislation provides a stabilizing influence, but should not be misconstrued as an incentive for reduced safety.

In any conceivable accident scenario where the liability limit is reached, it is almost certain that the owner's investment in the nuclear plant itself would be lost. In addition to raising the operator's limit, the new act introduces other improvements such as allowing the operator to obatain the required insurance through a wider variety of instruments including self-insurance , expanding the type of damage that is applicable, and allowing a longer claims period 30 vs. In Canada public property damage due to a nuclear accident is generally not included in homeowner insurance contracts since the coverage is provided under the NLA, by a pool of private insurers that thus avoids providing indemnification twice.

At the time NRX was one of the most significant research reactors in the world rated at that time for 30 MW operation , in its sixth year of operation. During preparations for a reactor-physics experiment at low power, a defect in the NRX shut-off rod mechanism combined with a number of operator errors to cause a temporary loss of control over reactor power. Power surged ultimately to somewhere between 60 and 90 MW over a period of about a minute the total energy surge is estimated to be approximately MW-seconds.

This energy load would normally not have been a problem, but several experimental fuel rods that were at that moment receiving inadequate cooling for high power operation ruptured and melted. About 10, Curies of fission products were carried by about a million gallons of cooling water into the basement of the reactor building.

This water was subsequently pumped to Chalk River Laboratories' waste management facility, where the long-term ground water outflow was monitored thereafter to ensure adherence to the drinking water standard.

The core of the reactor was left severely damaged. This accident is historically important, not only because it was the first of its type and magnitude, but also because of its legacy to Canadian and international practice in reactor safety and design. Nobody was killed or hurt in the incident, but a massive clean-up operation was required that involved hundreds of AECL staff, as well as Canadian and American military personnel, and employees of an external construction company working at the site.

In addition the reactor core itself was rendered unusable for an extended period. Environmental effects outside the plant were negligible, as was radiation exposure to members of the public. The health record of AECL and Canadian military personnel involved in the clean-up was scientifically reviewed in the s no significant health effects were observed.

Several of today's fundamental safety principles of reactor design and operation stem from the lessons learned at this formative stage of Canada's nuclear program, making Canada an early leader in this field. The accident also demonstrated that, due to a combination of redundant safety features, emergency procedures, and a level of inherent "forgiveness" or robustness in the technology, a major fuel-melt accident in a nuclear reactor can occur without significant environmental effects and radiation exposure to the surrounding population.

The NRX core was completely rebuilt, improved, and restarted within 14 months following the accident the first time something like this was attempted , and the reactor continued to perform for another four decades before being retired.

As with the analysis of the accident itself, the clean-up and repair of the NRX reactor shed light on several new concepts of reactor operation and design. A major example of these is the complete rehabilitation of a large reactor core, which contributed to the unique long-term maintenance philosophy of not only research-reactors at Chalk River Laboratories, but also CANDU power reactors.

Another summary of the NRX accident can be found here. Two points of trivia: Admiral Rickover of the US nuclear navy took advantage of the clean-up operation to train his men in the field.

One of the young officers involved in the effort was Lt. Jimmy Carter, a nuclear engineer who in became the 39th president of the United States and in a Nobel Peace Prize laureate.

Rosalie Bertell, a popular figure in the Canadian anti-nuclear scene, claims in her book, No Immediate Danger? In fact, as described above, the reactor did not explode and nobody was killed, and this has been a matter of public record since the accident. In December a worker named Stephen Whelan died when a container of ammonium nitrate exploded in a plutonium separation plant at the site; this incident is also in the public record.

The NRU, one of the world's most powerful and versatile research reactors, was in its first year of operation reactor design power: Although a major event in its own right, the NRU accident was not as significant as the NRX accident see related FAQ in terms of either the resulting damage to the reactor core or its legacy to the field of reactor safety.

Unlike the events of December , the NRU accident did not involve a power excursion in an operating reactor. It occurred while NRU was shut down and undergoing an operation to remove failed fuel from its core. While being removed the failed fuel rod did not receive adequate cooling and probably began burning in the fuel transfer flask above the core the fuel used at the time was uranium metal, which combusts spontaneously in air.

The fuel also broke apart, leaving one section in the bottom of the reactor and another section stuck in the transfer flask. As the transfer flask moved across the reactor bridge towards the fuel storage area beside the reactor, a three-foot section of the stuck fuel rod dropped from the flask into a maintenance pit on the bridge, where it continued to burn. The fire was extinguished relatively quickly about 15 minutes by reactor staff, but not before it had significantly contaminated the inside of the NRU building and, to a smaller degree, an area approximately 0.

Cleanup started immediately, along with repair of the reactor itself, and NRU was up and running again by August of that year. All personnel were protected from contamination by special clothing, and radiation doses were controlled through timed work procedures, long-handled tools, and dosimetry on all workers that ensured adherence to legal limits. Tritium H-3 is a radioactive heavy isotope of hydrogen, created in the heavy-water moderator of CANDU reactors by neutron bombardment of deuterium H-2, the hydrogen isotope in heavy water.

Over a period of time a significant quantity of tritium builds up in the moderator, and since tritium is radioactive, with a half-life of Tritium is considered a "low hazard" radioactive isotope, because of the weak energy of its radiation beta particles with an average of 6 keV energy. Due to its low-energy radiation, it is harmless outside the body, but becomes a biohazard if taken internally.

Stage 1 is a vapour phase catalytic extraction VPCE process which extracts the tritium in vapour form. Stage 2 is a cryogenic distillation process which then distills the tritium at low temperatures and immobilizes it. Ontario Power Generation can process up to 2.

The utility then markets this tritium globally, for end-uses not associated with nuclear weapons. Ontario is one of only two major civilian producers of tritium in the world, the other being a Russian-British joint venture called Reviss Services Ltd. The civilian uses of tritium include self-luminous lighting applications, fusion power research for which it is a principal fuel material , and tracer applications in biological and pharmaceutical research. The average, realistic radiation exposure in the community surrounding a nuclear plant, due directly to the plant itself, will be hundreds and thousands of times less again.

At this level the dose is millions of times less than that which is observed to have a health effect in human populations, and unnoticeable compared to the natural radioactivity of our own bodies. The amount of radiation that the public is exposed to from nuclear plants is a matter of public record, and both past and current information can be obtained on-line from the CNSC website see above link , or from the utilities themselves see, for example, the reports on the Ontario Power Generation website.

The act of regulating something often breeds apprehension, but quantities regulated for industrial use can be smaller than naturally-occuring quantities of the same material. For example, the following common items contain enough potassium a naturally radioactive form of potassium, found in concentrations of 1-part-in, within natural potassium to require a license from the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission CNSC , had that same quantity of potassium been isolated within a regulated nuclear industrial or laboratory setting: The level of radiation in all of these cases presents no health risk and may even be beneficial , but the information sheds light on both the ubiquitous nature of radioactivity, and the conservatism built into regulatory limits.

For more information on the radiation around us, and inside us, see "Radioactivity in Nature" from Iowa State University. A home-made cloud-chamber for "seeing" radiation is described in the author's brochure, "Radiation Encounter! Teacher and student resources are available at the Yes I Can!

It is found in small amounts in nature about 4 kg globally , created by cosmic ray interactions in the upper atmosphere. Tritium is considered to be a weak radionuclide because of the low energy of its radioactive emissions beta particle energy 0 - 19 keV; average energy about 6 keV. The beta particles similar to electrons do not travel very far in air and do not penetrate skin; therefore the main biological hazard of tritium is due to its intake into the body inhalation, ingestion, or absorption.

Several epidemiological studies of cancer especially leukemia and other disease incidence, birth defects, mortality, and other abnormalities have been conducted in communities near CANDU nuclear stations and other nuclear facilities in Canada.

As expected by the low levels of radioactive emissions measured to date, there has been no evidence of a negative health effect in these populations. Exposure to Radiation and Health Outcomes by M.

The CNSC is an independent, quasi-judicial administrative tribunal and regulatory agency that reports to Parliament through the Minister of Natural Resources. The CNSC regulates the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect health, safety, security and the environment, and to respect Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Nuclear regulation is solely federal jurisdiction, and the CNSC has no provincial counterparts.

Licences are granted by the CNSC for all aspects of operation involving the above facilities and activities. Licensees are required to prove to the CNSC that their facility or activity is acceptably safe, under the requirements of the NSCA, before a license is granted or renewed.

This approach includes external risks from both natural and man-made causes. For example, the CNSC specifies the levels and type of security that are required at nuclear facilities.

The process followed at each of these licensing steps includes a public hearing with opportunity for public input. In addition, the licensing process for a nuclear power plant in Canada proceeds only after approval is granted through the federal Environmental Assessment EA process under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act CEAA, , involving the convening of a EA Panel and further public hearings.

The EA process identifies whether a specific project is likely to cause significant environmental effects, determines whether potentially significant adverse effects are identified and mitigates to the extent possible.

Its operations, meeting, and reports are open to public scrutiny. The report concluded that, although some gaps in public communication exist particularly with NGOs that may lead to a perception of non-transparency, the practices and procedures of the CNSC do ensure independent oversight. In particular, the report found that "there are practices within the commission itself to ensure legitimacy and voice, including strict guidelines to ensure that there is no conflict of interest.

As a licensing requirement, nuclear reactors must be qualified to withstand the level of seismic activity that is expected for each individual reactor location. Seismic qualification is a common component of civil and mechanical design, and nuclear reactors do not differ from any other major infrastructure in this respect.

The same robustness and defense-in-depth approach that assures safety and security of a nuclear plant plays a major role in its seismic qualification, and often provides a level of conservatism that continues to protect even during beyond-design-basis events. This description is provided by the author for the purpose of explaining a complex situation to the public, and does not represent an official account by AECL, the CNSC, or the Government of Canada.

While both atomic bombs and nuclear reactors make use of the energy from a nuclear fission chain reaction in uranium or plutonium, the similarity stops there. For a nuclear explosion, it is required to bring together a critical mass of fissile material uranium or plutonium extremely quickly and release an enormous amount of energy in a matter of milliseconds. As with any conventional "bomb" the defining characteristic is a large amount of energy release within a contained area in a very short almost instantaneous time frame.

For example, a gallon of gasoline poured over a driveway and ignited is a "fire"; a gallon of gasoline ignited all at once while still in a can is a "bomb". On 11 March , the T? It was the largest earthquake to hit Japan in recorded history Richter magnitude 9 , and the subsequent tsunami, with a peak wave height of 40 metres, travelled up to 10 km inland. Following the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear plant accident in , which was initiated by a powerful earthquake and tsunami that destroyed all immediate ability to cool the nuclear fuel in three recently operating reactors, the Canadian federal nuclear regulator, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission set up a special Task Force to determine how safe Canadian CANDU reactors are against conceptually similar low-frequency, high-consequence natural disasters, and to compile a list of lessons learned.

The Task Force, in its final report concluded that the CANDU fleet is safe against such threats, due to the "defence-in-depth" strategy of reactor safety that provides robust and multi-level barriers against a range of scenarios - but also made a number of recommendations that could improve safety even more see above link. What are the observed health effects of the Chornobyl accident?

How are Canadians insured against nuclear accidents? How much radiation do nuclear plants expose the Canadian public to? Do nuclear power reactors have a negative health impact in surrounding communities? How is nuclear technology regulated in Canada? Can nuclear reactors withstand earthquakes? Why was a Chalk River reactor shut down in November , causing a shortage in medical radioisotopes?

Why can't a reactor explode like an atomic bomb? What is the probable public health effect from the Fukushima nuclear accident? A millisievert mSv is one-thousandth of a sievert. Canadians, on average, are exposed to about 3.

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