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It's the authoritative, last word on choosing foods to control your blood sugar. See goma dofu recipe. Its main feature is the use of bitter gourd, which is stir-fried with pork, egg and tofu to make a hearty dish. Since I 've moved in Switzerland. Donor and receiving countries should be responsible for the impacts of aid and use it for long-term objectives.
Advanced Glycemic Load Data
The world is becoming more competitive and unfortunately, Americans are falling behind. When traveling overseas to visit foreign schools and universities, I am quickly reminded of how American students are losing their edge on a number of fronts.
We, of course, read about how students in the United States rank far behind many of their Asian and European counterparts in math and science. In addition to these subjects, foreign language training is perhaps another area where Americans are lagging as well. These same foreign countries are actively educating their young students in English starting from elementary school. For some Americans, this may be an excuse for why U. In this probable future environment, our multilingual foreign competitors will have the advantage over monolingual Americans.
In short, if we are serious about educating global leaders for tomorrow, we need to have students who can engage many different societies and be able to build cooperation between them. Foreign language must be an important part of this endeavor. The pursuit of foreign language education should not be considered a luxury to be sought by a few. Rather, foreign language instruction should be a core element to our education and taught as early as possible.
View the discussion thread. Over the past thirty years, we have developed a number of programs in support of this vision -- always with the spirit of Mike Mansfield as the driving force in our carefully designed programming. In addition to mentorship and training, many food startup accelerators will offer funding often in exchange for a portion of equity , coworking space, and introductions to angels and venture capitalists that are looking to fund businesses like yours.
Originally published on April 23, The current publication date reflects the last time the list was updated. With all this talk of accelerators and incubators, you might be wondering: As someone who has been through an accelerator program and has helped a startup founding team operate while attending YC, I understand the importance of weighing the costs of attending an accelerator i. Do accelerator programs work?
It seems that YC leads the pack. Think I missed a program worthy of being listed? In catabolism, water is used to break bonds in order to generate smaller molecules e. Without water, these particular metabolic processes could not exist.
Water is fundamental to photosynthesis and respiration. Photosynthetic cells use the sun's energy to split off water's hydrogen from oxygen [ citation needed ]. Hydrogen is combined with CO 2 absorbed from air or water to form glucose and release oxygen [ citation needed ]. All living cells use such fuels and oxidize the hydrogen and carbon to capture the sun's energy and reform water and CO 2 in the process cellular respiration.
Water is also central to acid-base neutrality and enzyme function. Water is considered to be neutral, with a pH the negative log of the hydrogen ion concentration of 7.
Acids have pH values less than 7 while bases have values greater than 7. Earth surface waters are filled with life. The earliest life forms appeared in water; nearly all fish live exclusively in water, and there are many types of marine mammals, such as dolphins and whales.
Some kinds of animals, such as amphibians , spend portions of their lives in water and portions on land. Plants such as kelp and algae grow in the water and are the basis for some underwater ecosystems.
Plankton is generally the foundation of the ocean food chain. Aquatic vertebrates must obtain oxygen to survive, and they do so in various ways. Fish have gills instead of lungs , although some species of fish, such as the lungfish , have both.
Marine mammals , such as dolphins, whales, otters , and seals need to surface periodically to breathe air. Some amphibians are able to absorb oxygen through their skin. Invertebrates exhibit a wide range of modifications to survive in poorly oxygenated waters including breathing tubes see insect and mollusc siphons and gills Carcinus. However as invertebrate life evolved in an aquatic habitat most have little or no specialisation for respiration in water. Civilization has historically flourished around rivers and major waterways; Mesopotamia , the so-called cradle of civilization, was situated between the major rivers Tigris and Euphrates ; the ancient society of the Egyptians depended entirely upon the Nile.
Rome was also founded on the banks of the Italian river Tiber. Islands with safe water ports, like Singapore, have flourished for the same reason. In places such as North Africa and the Middle East, where water is more scarce, access to clean drinking water was and is a major factor in human development. Water fit for human consumption is called drinking water or potable water.
Water that is not potable may be made potable by filtration or distillation , or by a range of other methods. Water that is not fit for drinking but is not harmful for humans when used for swimming or bathing is called by various names other than potable or drinking water, and is sometimes called safe water , or "safe for bathing".
Chlorine is a skin and mucous membrane irritant that is used to make water safe for bathing or drinking. Its use is highly technical and is usually monitored by government regulations typically 1 part per million ppm for drinking water, and 1—2 ppm of chlorine not yet reacted with impurities for bathing water.
Water for bathing may be maintained in satisfactory microbiological condition using chemical disinfectants such as chlorine or ozone or by the use of ultraviolet light. In the US, non-potable forms of wastewater generated by humans may be referred to as greywater , which is treatable and thus easily able to be made potable again, and blackwater , which generally contains sewage and other forms of waste which require further treatment in order to be made reusable.
These terms may have different meanings in other countries and cultures. This natural resource is becoming scarcer in certain places, and its availability is a major social and economic concern.
Currently, about a billion people around the world routinely drink unhealthy water. Most countries accepted the goal of halving by the number of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water and sanitation during the G8 Evian summit. Poor water quality and bad sanitation are deadly; some five million deaths a year are caused by polluted drinking water.
The World Health Organization estimates that safe water could prevent 1. Water, however, is not a finite resource meaning the availability of water is limited , but rather re-circulated as potable water in precipitation  in quantities many orders of magnitude higher than human consumption.
Water-poor countries use importation of goods as the primary method of importing water to leave enough for local human consumption , [ further explanation needed ] since the manufacturing process [ clarification needed ] uses around 10 to times products' masses in water.
The most important use of water in agriculture is for irrigation , which is a key component to produce enough food. Fifty years ago, the common perception was that water was an infinite resource. At the time, there were fewer than half the current number of people on the planet. People were not as wealthy as today, consumed fewer calories and ate less meat, so less water was needed to produce their food.
They required a third of the volume of water we presently take from rivers. Today, the competition for the fixed amount of water resources is much more intense, giving rise to the concept of peak water. In future, even more water will be needed to produce food because the Earth's population is forecast to rise to 9 billion by An assessment of water management in agriculture was conducted in by the International Water Management Institute in Sri Lanka to see if the world had sufficient water to provide food for its growing population.
It found that a fifth of the world's people, more than 1. The report found that it would be possible to produce the food required in future, but that continuation of today's food production and environmental trends would lead to crises in many parts of the world. To avoid a global water crisis, farmers will have to strive to increase productivity to meet growing demands for food, while industry and cities find ways to use water more efficiently.
Water scarcity is also caused by production of cotton: While cotton accounts for 2. Significant environmental damage has been caused, such as disappearance of the Aral Sea. On 7 April , the gram was defined in France to be equal to "the absolute weight of a volume of pure water equal to a cube of one hundredth of a meter, and at the temperature of melting ice".
Work was therefore commissioned to determine precisely the mass of one liter of water. The Kelvin temperature scale of the SI system is based on the triple point of water, defined as exactly Natural water consists mainly of the isotopes hydrogen-1 and oxygen, but there is also a small quantity of heavier isotopes such as hydrogen-2 deuterium.
The amount of deuterium oxides or heavy water is very small, but it still affects the properties of water. Water from rivers and lakes tends to contain less deuterium than seawater. Most of this is ingested through foods or beverages other than drinking straight water. It is not clear how much water intake is needed by healthy people, though most specialists agree that approximately 2 liters 6 to 7 glasses of water daily is the minimum to maintain proper hydration. For those who have healthy kidneys, it is rather difficult to drink too much water, but especially in warm humid weather and while exercising it is dangerous to drink too little.
People can drink far more water than necessary while exercising, however, putting them at risk of water intoxication hyperhydration , which can be fatal.
Most of this quantity is contained in prepared foods. Specifically, pregnant and breastfeeding women need additional fluids to stay hydrated. The Institute of Medicine US recommends that, on average, men consume 3 liters 0. Water is excreted from the body in multiple forms; through urine and feces , through sweating , and by exhalation of water vapor in the breath. With physical exertion and heat exposure, water loss will increase and daily fluid needs may increase as well.
Humans require water with few impurities. Some solutes are acceptable and even desirable for taste enhancement and to provide needed electrolytes. The single largest by volume freshwater resource suitable for drinking is Lake Baikal in Siberia. The propensity of water to form solutions and emulsions is useful in various washing processes. Washing is also an important component of several aspects of personal body hygiene. Most of personal water use is due to showering , doing the laundry and dishwashing , reaching hundreds of liters per day in developed countries.
The use of water for transportation of materials through rivers and canals as well as the international shipping lanes is an important part of the world economy. Water is widely used in chemical reactions as a solvent or reactant and less commonly as a solute or catalyst.
In inorganic reactions, water is a common solvent, dissolving many ionic compounds, as well as other polar compounds such as ammonia and compounds closely related to water. In organic reactions, it is not usually used as a reaction solvent, because it does not dissolve the reactants well and is amphoteric acidic and basic and nucleophilic.
Nevertheless, these properties are sometimes desirable. Also, acceleration of Diels-Alder reactions by water has been observed. Supercritical water has recently been a topic of research. Oxygen-saturated supercritical water combusts organic pollutants efficiently.
Water vapor is used for some processes in the chemical industry. An example is the production of acrylic acid from acrolein, propylene and propane. Water and steam are a common fluid used for heat exchange , due to its availability and high heat capacity , both for cooling and heating. Cool water may even be naturally available from a lake or the sea. It's especially effective to transport heat through vaporization and condensation of water because of its large latent heat of vaporization.
A disadvantage is that metals commonly found in industries such as steel and copper are oxidized faster by untreated water and steam. In almost all thermal power stations , water is used as the working fluid used in a closed loop between boiler, steam turbine and condenser , and the coolant used to exchange the waste heat to a water body or carry it away by evaporation in a cooling tower.
In the United States, cooling power plants is the largest use of water. In the nuclear power industry, water can also be used as a neutron moderator. In most nuclear reactors , water is both a coolant and a moderator.
This provides something of a passive safety measure, as removing the water from the reactor also slows the nuclear reaction down.
However other methods are favored for stopping a reaction and it is preferred to keep the nuclear core covered with water so as to ensure adequate cooling.
Water has a high heat of vaporization and is relatively inert, which makes it a good fire extinguishing fluid. The evaporation of water carries heat away from the fire.
It is dangerous to use water on fires involving oils and organic solvents, because many organic materials float on water and the water tends to spread the burning liquid. Use of water in fire fighting should also take into account the hazards of a steam explosion , which may occur when water is used on very hot fires in confined spaces, and of a hydrogen explosion, when substances which react with water, such as certain metals or hot carbon such as coal, charcoal , or coke graphite, decompose the water, producing water gas.
The power of such explosions was seen in the Chernobyl disaster , although the water involved did not come from fire-fighting at that time but the reactor's own water cooling system. A steam explosion occurred when the extreme overheating of the core caused water to flash into steam. A hydrogen explosion may have occurred as a result of reaction between steam and hot zirconium. Humans use water for many recreational purposes, as well as for exercising and for sports.
Some of these include swimming, waterskiing , boating , surfing and diving. In addition, some sports, like ice hockey and ice skating , are played on ice.
Lakesides, beaches and water parks are popular places for people to go to relax and enjoy recreation. Many find the sound and appearance of flowing water to be calming, and fountains and other water features are popular decorations.
Some keep fish and other life in aquariums or ponds for show, fun, and companionship. Humans also use water for snow sports i. The water industry provides drinking water and wastewater services including sewage treatment to households and industry.
Water supply facilities include water wells , cisterns for rainwater harvesting , water supply networks , and water purification facilities, water tanks , water towers , water pipes including old aqueducts. Atmospheric water generators are in development. Drinking water is often collected at springs , extracted from artificial borings wells in the ground, or pumped from lakes and rivers. Building more wells in adequate places is thus a possible way to produce more water, assuming the aquifers can supply an adequate flow.
Other water sources include rainwater collection. Water may require purification for human consumption. This may involve removal of undissolved substances, dissolved substances and harmful microbes. Popular methods are filtering with sand which only removes undissolved material, while chlorination and boiling kill harmful microbes. Distillation does all three functions. More advanced techniques exist, such as reverse osmosis. Desalination of abundant seawater is a more expensive solution used in coastal arid climates.
The distribution of drinking water is done through municipal water systems , tanker delivery or as bottled water. Governments in many countries have programs to distribute water to the needy at no charge.
Reducing usage by using drinking potable water only for human consumption is another option. In some cities such as Hong Kong, sea water is extensively used for flushing toilets citywide in order to conserve fresh water resources.
Polluting water may be the biggest single misuse of water; to the extent that a pollutant limits other uses of the water, it becomes a waste of the resource, regardless of benefits to the polluter. Like other types of pollution, this does not enter standard accounting of market costs, being conceived as externalities for which the market cannot account.
Thus other people pay the price of water pollution, while the private firms' profits are not redistributed to the local population, victims of this pollution. Pharmaceuticals consumed by humans often end up in the waterways and can have detrimental effects on aquatic life if they bioaccumulate and if they are not biodegradable.
Municipal and industrial wastewater are typically treated at wastewater treatment plants. Mitigation of polluted surface runoff is addressed through a variety of prevention and treatment techniques. See Surface runoff Mitigation and treatment. Many industrial processes rely on reactions using chemicals dissolved in water, suspension of solids in water slurries or using water to dissolve and extract substances, or to wash products or process equipment.
Processes such as mining , chemical pulping , pulp bleaching , paper manufacturing , textile production, dyeing, printing, and cooling of power plants use large amounts of water, requiring a dedicated water source, and often cause significant water pollution. Water is used in power generation. Hydroelectricity is electricity obtained from hydropower.
Hydroelectric power comes from water driving a water turbine connected to a generator. Hydroelectricity is a low-cost, non-polluting, renewable energy source. The energy is supplied by the motion of water. Typically a dam is constructed on a river, creating an artificial lake behind it. Water flowing out of the lake is forced through turbines that turn generators.
Pressurized water is used in water blasting and water jet cutters. Also, very high pressure water guns are used for precise cutting. It works very well, is relatively safe, and is not harmful to the environment.
It is also used in the cooling of machinery to prevent overheating, or prevent saw blades from overheating. Water is also used in many industrial processes and machines, such as the steam turbine and heat exchanger , in addition to its use as a chemical solvent.
Discharge of untreated water from industrial uses is pollution. Pollution includes discharged solutes chemical pollution and discharged coolant water thermal pollution.