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OC spray, or Oleoresin Capsicum, is commonly used by law enforcement officers to deter attackers. Waxy potato varieties produce two main kinds of potato starch, amylose and amylopectin , the latter of which is most industrially useful. Conditioned flavor avoidance as a measure of withdrawal in rats chronically exposed to a caffeine solution. Please share your Comments. Immature potatoes may be sold as "creamer potatoes" and are particularly valued for taste. There are a great many herbs that work as general tissue healers through various actions, any of these that suit you would be beneficial added to a nourishing infusion, here are a few to consider: Often, green manure crops are grown for a specific period, and then plowed under before reaching full maturity in order to improve soil fertility and quality.

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In both cases, the plants are resinous, aromatic and sticky and it is at least partly this resin that seems to be responsible for their medicinal actions. I first learned about Aster from jim mcdonald and he has a great writeup on Aster novae-angliae here http: This effect is clearly apparent when taking a bit of the tincture. It is, however, uniquely antispasmodic for the lung tissue; it relaxes and dilates the respiratory passages. This seems equally true of our local Purple Sticky Aster, which smells like a cross between Lavender and some sort of sticky baby shampoo.

Clinically, I have seen a simple of Aster flower tincture both reduce and eliminate the need for inhalers during allergy and fire season. This often works well both symptomatically and long term. I use the seeding aerial tops in a great many respiratory tincture formulae but also as a straightforward simple for treating symptoms of respiratory tension, spasming and the inability to take a deep breath.

Just a few drops can work its magic. Despite its lingering bad rep in some circles, Lobelia in a normal dose drops can be safe and effective in children. Mulberry — Morus alba — I first learned about the incredible usefulness of Mulberry leaves for smoke induced respiratory distress from herbalist Cory Trusty and have been grateful to her for it ever since. The dried leaves as a tea or the fresh leaves as an elixir or tincture are cooling and relaxing, helping to drain heat and relax tension from the whole respiratory tract.

Additionally, I find this to be a great but gentle diuretic for those who suffer from heat related edema in their extremities, especially that exacerbated by respiratory issues as well as systemic inflammation with heat signs.

Peach — Prunus persica — Cool, sweet and moistening, Peach leaf is broadly applicable for all sorts of respiratory tension and heat as well as the immune hyperfunction that can occur in response to wildfire smoke. The tincture, elixir or even just the tea made with the dried leaves all serve admirably. Elecampane — Inula helenium — Many people consider Elecampane a general lung cure all and in deed its range of use is broad, deep and time-honored.

This is a symptom pattern indicating Inula and here it can be used as a simple or in formula. Ragweed — Ambrosia spp. Being an astringent as well as stimulating, it tends to be very effective in promoting expectoration while simultaneously lessening the overall volume of secretions. Osha — Ligusticum spp. Mucus membrane tonics can also help reduce the occurence of nosebleeds as can demulcents. Goldenseal — Hydrastis canadensis — Not being local to me, I use Goldenseal very as in extremely rarely.

Like Bidens, it helps to restore tone and function to the mucosa:. Yerba Mansa — Anemopsis californica — Unlike the two previous herbs in this category, Yerba Mansa is warming and aromatic and I find it more appropriate to cases where long term mucosa infection or inflammation has caused the tissues to become boggy, drippy and achy.

American Spikenard — Aralia racemosa — This plant, especially roots or berries, seems to act as a mild adaptogen with a particular affinity for the mucosa and respiratory tract. It works best when given long term, especially where there are signs of fatigue, chronic inflammation and overall deficiency.

Reishi — Ganoderma lucidum — A strong decoction of Reishi is excellent for lessening inflammation and nervous system reactivity while increasing lung capacity, endurance and energy. Like Aralia, Reishi is an adaptogen with an affinity for the respiratory system. As such, it is best used consistently over time. Reishi has a huge arrange of application but is phenomenal in the context of wildfire smoke exposure because of the way it increases energy, decreases inflammation, calms the nervous system and serves to protect and heal the lungs.

There are a great many herbs that work as general tissue healers through various actions, any of these that suit you would be beneficial added to a nourishing infusion, here are a few to consider: Plantain, Evening Primrose Oenothera spp. June 30, at 9: Plantain seems to cause the mucous membranes to moisten, loosening irritants that were inhaled, coat the lung tissue and dry it out.

Productive hacking err… expectoration oft ensues. Blends quite well with new england aster and mullein leaf. Nice with ragweed for upper respiratory woe, too. Do you feel like Plantain tincture acts differently than the leaf in this situation?

As you mentioned with the magical properties of Osha and ALL plants having those properties, taking many of these plants will also give their magical blessings towards the emotional effects, but it would be interesting to think about maybe putting a touch of something in a fire smoke formula that would specifically help with the emotional grief too. I agree about the emotional grief aspect, Pilar. Which makes complete and total sense since per TCM, grief sits in the lungs, so how divine that herbs that help the lungs also help grief.

Thanks for the great ideas, Kiva. Will be using this to help folks including myself! Thank you so much for linking to my shop. You may use these HTML tags and attributes: The nitrogen tied up in catch crop biomass is released back into the soil once the catch crop is incorporated as a green manure or otherwise begins to decompose. An example of green manure use comes from Nigeria, where the cover crop Mucuna pruriens velvet bean has been found to increase the availability of phosphorus in soil after a farmer applies rock phosphate Vanlauwe et al.

Cover crops can also improve soil quality by increasing soil organic matter levels through the input of cover crop biomass over time. Increased soil organic matter enhances soil structure , as well as the water and nutrient holding and buffering capacity of soil Patrick et al.

It can also lead to increased soil carbon sequestration , which has been promoted as a strategy to help offset the rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels Kuo et al. Soil quality is managed to produce optimum circumstances for crops to flourish. The principal factors of soil quality are soil salination , pH , microorganism balance and the prevention of soil contamination.

By reducing soil erosion, cover crops often also reduce both the rate and quantity of water that drains off the field, which would normally pose environmental risks to waterways and ecosystems downstream Dabney et al. Cover crop biomass acts as a physical barrier between rainfall and the soil surface, allowing raindrops to steadily trickle down through the soil profile.

Also, as stated above, cover crop root growth results in the formation of soil pores, which in addition to enhancing soil macrofauna habitat provides pathways for water to filter through the soil profile rather than draining off the field as surface flow. With increased water infiltration, the potential for soil water storage and the recharging of aquifers can be improved Joyce et al.

Just before cover crops are killed by such practices including mowing, tilling, discing, rolling, or herbicide application they contain a large amount of moisture. When the cover crop is incorporated into the soil, or left on the soil surface, it often increases soil moisture. In agroecosystems where water for crop production is in short supply, cover crops can be used as a mulch to conserve water by shading and cooling the soil surface. This reduces evaporation of soil moisture.

In other situations farmers try to dry the soil out as quickly as possible going into the planting season.

Here prolonged soil moisture conservation can be problematic. While cover crops can help to conserve water, in temperate regions particularly in years with below average precipitation they can draw down soil water supply in the spring, particularly if climatic growing conditions are good. In these cases, just before crop planting, farmers often face a tradeoff between the benefits of increased cover crop growth and the drawbacks of reduced soil moisture for cash crop production that season.

Thick cover crop stands often compete well with weeds during the cover crop growth period, and can prevent most germinated weed seeds from completing their life cycle and reproducing. If the cover crop is left on the soil surface rather than incorporated into the soil as a green manure after its growth is terminated, it can form a nearly impenetrable mat.

This drastically reduces light transmittance to weed seeds, which in many cases reduces weed seed germination rates Teasdale Furthermore, even when weed seeds germinate, they often run out of stored energy for growth before building the necessary structural capacity to break through the cover crop mulch layer. This is often termed the cover crop smother effect Kobayashi et al. Some cover crops suppress weeds both during growth and after death Blackshaw et al.

During growth these cover crops compete vigorously with weeds for available space, light, and nutrients, and after death they smother the next flush of weeds by forming a mulch layer on the soil surface.

For example, Blackshaw et al. In addition to competition-based or physical weed suppression, certain cover crops are known to suppress weeds through allelopathy Creamer et al. This occurs when certain biochemical cover crop compounds are degraded that happen to be toxic to, or inhibit seed germination of, other plant species.

Some well known examples of allelopathic cover crops are Secale cereale rye , Vicia villosa hairy vetch , Trifolium pratense red clover , Sorghum bicolor sorghum-sudangrass , and species in the Brassicaceae family, particularly mustards Haramoto and Gallandt In a recent study released by the Agricultural Research Service ARS scientists examined how rye seeding rates and planting patterns affected cover crop production.

The same was true when scientists tested seeding rates on legumes and oats; a higher density of seeds planted per acre decreased the amount of weeds and increased the yield of legume and oat production. The planting patterns, which consisted of either traditional rows or grid patterns, did not seem to make a significant impact on the cover crop's production or on the weed production in either cover crop.

The ARS scientists concluded that increased seeding rates could be an effective method of weed control. In the same way that allelopathic properties of cover crops can suppress weeds, they can also break disease cycles and reduce populations of bacterial and fungal diseases Everts , and parasitic nematodes Potter et al. Species in the Brassicaceae family, such as mustards, have been widely shown to suppress fungal disease populations through the release of naturally occurring toxic chemicals during the degradation of glucosinolade compounds in their plant cell tissues Lazzeri and Manici Some cover crops are used as so-called "trap crops", to attract pests away from the crop of value and toward what the pest sees as a more favorable habitat Shelton and Badenes-Perez Trap crop areas can be established within crops, within farms, or within landscapes.

In many cases the trap crop is grown during the same season as the food crop being produced. The limited area occupied by these trap crops can be treated with a pesticide once pests are drawn to the trap in large enough numbers to reduce the pest populations.

In some organic systems, farmers drive over the trap crop with a large vacuum-based implement to physically pull the pests off the plants and out of the field Kuepper and Thomas This system has been recommended for use to help control the lygus bugs in organic strawberry production Zalom et al. Another example of trap crops are nematode resistance white mustard Sinapis alba and radish Raphanus sativus. They can be grown after a main cereal crop and trap nematodes, for example the beet cyst nematode [4] [5] and Columbian root knot nematode.

After entering the roots they cannot reproduce in the root due to a hypersensitive resistance reaction of the plant. Other cover crops are used to attract natural predators of pests by providing elements of their habitat. This is a form of biological control known as habitat augmentation, but achieved with the use of cover crops Bugg and Waddington For example, the predator mite Euseius tularensis Congdon is known to help control the pest citrus thrips in Central California citrus orchards.

Researchers found that the planting of several different leguminous cover crops such as bell bean, woollypod vetch, New Zealand white clover, and Austrian winter pea provided sufficient pollen as a feeding source to cause a seasonal increase in E. Although cover crops are normally used to serve one of the above discussed purposes, they often simultaneously improve farm habitat for wildlife.

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