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Gastrointestinal tract
Contains chemical that will bind with ammonia in the water. GPS-tracking of 40 Wandering Albatrosses from the Crozet archipelago during the incubation phase confirmed foraging movements of between — km, giving the birds access to a variety of prey, including fishery wastes. In species for which suspended food particles are important, the tentacles and oral arms often have rows of cilia whose beating creates currents that flow towards the mouth, and some produce nets of mucus to trap particles. Which of the following most accurately depicts the difference between acute and chronic pain? Battling bacterial infection with hexamethylene diisocyanate cross-linked and Cefaclor-loaded collagen scaffolds. In their evolution from the apes humans learned to grow food for their own sustenance and then to develop many processes to preserve the food or to increase its desirable characteristics, sometimes thus decreasing or improving its nutritional value. Excelsior is also made from renewable resources and is compostable.

Form and function

Physical Health

Cafeteria-style feeding is strongly discouraged, because captive animals rarely select a balanced diet if given a wide selection of foods. Usually, a nutritionally complete commercial product or in-house mixture that cannot be sorted should comprise the bulk of the diet, with components such as meat, fruit, and seeds comprising only a small percentage.

Pelleted diets are especially important with psittacines, to avoid self-selection of calcium-deficient seeds. To improve consumption of pelleted diets, feeding should be done in the morning, with the other food items offered during the day.

All diet items to be fed should be weighed, and the actual intake recorded. Muscle and organ meat, fruit, most grains and seeds, and most insects are poor sources of calcium, and excess consumption can result in calcium deficiency. Dusting with a balanced calcium-phosphorus powder is also a possibility; however, it is doubtful this can add enough calcium to the diet. Other sources of calcium include oyster shell, cuttle bone, and ground calcium carbonate tablets.

Obesity is more common than inadequate nutrient intake. Ungulates, primates, and carnivores can rapidly become overweight when excess amounts of a high-quality diet are offered, particularly when activity is limited. In some birds eg, ratites, waterfowl , rapid growth rates increase the incidence of leg and wing problems. Both adult and growing animals should be routinely weighed to monitor changes. If weighing four times a year is not possible, a body score index should be performed.

If a dietary change is contemplated because of suspected nutrient imbalances, deficiencies, or toxicities, the diet currently fed should first be computer-analyzed to assess nutrient concentrations. Ingredient or nutrient changes can then be made based on correcting a suspected or confirmed health problem.

For captive, exotic animals, establishing and maintaining dietary histories can be particularly helpful in health assessment. Activity patterns of individuals are also important eg, atherosclerosis is relatively common in obese birds.

The use of nutritional supplements is popular among animal caretakers. Although many keepers and pet owners use nutritionally complete feeds that require no supplementation, supplements are still often provided. The nutrient content of the current diet should be established or estimated first to determine whether any supplement is needed or whether a supplement should be discontinued. Unfortunately, diets are rarely evaluated first to determine which nutrients if any are unbalanced.

If a nutrient is deficient in a diet, a specific supplement in a specific amount should be recommended. Excessive supplementation of some nutrients eg, some fat-soluble vitamins, selenium, copper can be just as harmful as not enough because of toxicity and nutrient imbalance. Diets consisting primarily of grain products and cultivated fruits and vegetables may need micronutrient supplementation; however, supplements vary widely in their composition.

Water intake should be assessed routinely but especially in animals with compromised renal function, in lizards or birds prone to gout, and in animals under conditions of high temperature or low humidity in which evaporative losses can be expected. The salt content of water should be known, because some species are less tolerant than others. Animals fed dry feeds pellets, extrusions, hay, etc require more water than those fed succulent feeds.

Potable water should be available ad lib. Many animals in the wild consume much of their water in the foods they eat. When low-moisture foods are consumed pellets, extrusions, etc , some animals, depending on how water is presented, may not maintain adequate hydration. Many free-ranging small and tropical lizards receive water from foods and from licking drops that accumulate after rainfall.

When in captivity, they frequently do not drink readily from containers. This substrate is great for plants, but just also helps provide an ideal environment for shrimps such as crystal red and black shrimps, cherry shrimps, tiger shrimps, etc… Each 9l bag weighs 7 pounds and is ideal for a 5 gallon tank. Amazonia Aqua Soil - powder type: Africana is substrate material produced with an image of reddish earth of Africa.

Due to the nature of the base soil, the granular shape stays for a long period, and it also lowers pH level. Since the amount of organic matters is not as high as that of Amazonia, plants grow slowly in Africana soil. Malaya is the substrate material produced with an image of ocher color soil in Southeast Asia. It promotes a natural feeling of the aquascape. Relatively soft granules do not obstruct the growth of plant roots, and it is suitable for keeping the aquarium layout for a long period.

ADA Stones- few varieties available. When setting up your ADA tank, it's important to start off on the right foot. Each pre-packages set is good for a tank with a foot print of 60 cm x 30 cm. Is a substrate additive containing more than kinds of substrate bacteria in a dormant state. By sprinkling on the base substrate, it can make an ideal substrate environment. By applying on top of the green algae, it suppresses the growth of it. Bacter Ball is a sphere substrate additive made from Bacter You can place it on the substrate and inside the biological filtration system.

It is a LED lighting system specifically designed for aquatic plant layouts in nano-size aquariums. Whereas this product provides enough light intensity for plant growth, it requires less power consumption improving cost performance. The slim lighting unit has a high radiation performance and its clear stand provides an open feeling to the top of the aquarium. Check valve help prevent the back flow of water to your regulator thus preventing water from damaging it.

It is a clear CO2 check valve. ADA Mat for P tank. Shrimp Food, Additives, and Water Conditioners. When being used for initial tank setup, sprinkle a thin layer before laying substrate. Alternatively you can use half a spoonful every 10 gallons of water change. Be aware that it will raise TDS.

Ebi-Ken Nagomi - shrimp supplement is a ceramic based mineral ball which will continually release over 50 trace minerals into the water for shrimp to use for up to 2 years. This will help to streamline the routine you normally use for your shrimp.

Ebi-Ken Nagomi mineral balls will also help to reduce the need for continued use of expensive powdered and liquid shrimp mineral supplements. It is recommended to use 5 balls per gallons of water spread evenly across substrate or placed near a high flow area.

Usage - 60cm aquarium: Our special recipe and the way we manufacture our shrimp foods guarantee that your shrimp will find this food tasty even after some time in the water, it is thus completely eaten. Ingredients Chlorella algae, protein extracts of vegetable origin, squid, fennel, yeast extract, Asian cabbage, amino acids, algae extracts, lecithin, and mustard seed.

Betaglucan in combination with Immunoglobulin can strengthen your shrimps' immune system and improve their ability to fend off germs and noxious bacteria. Used preventively, it increase the state of alertness of the shrimps' immune system. Thus, in the case of an immunological response, intruders can be fought off more efficiently and more rapidly. Bacter AE Micro powder adds important microorganisms, amino acids and enzymes to your aquarium.

It enhancing water quality and improving the development of biofilms, which are essential for shrimp. The biofilms thus created provide them with a valuable staple food rich in beneficial proteins, especially improving the survival rate of young shrimplets.

In addition, live probiotic bacteria improve the nutrient uptake of the shrimp and influence their digestive processes in a positive way. Shrimp Baby Food is a powered rearing food for ornamental shrimp that is rich in protein, containing zooplankton, natural vitamins, minerals and high level of Omega 3 fatty acids, providing young shrimp with everything they need for healthy growth and delivering sufficient power and energy.

The content of ppm astaxantin forms especially in red, yellow, and orange shrimp, the color pigments cells from the beginning good, so they may show up in a blaze of color. Generic brand Soy pellets for shrimps. Organic Mulberry Leaves - Great food for all types of shrimps and algae eating fish species.

The leaves are rich in vitamins and promote health and growth for the animals eating it. The leaves are sold as freshly picked when in season, and when not in season they are sold previously frozen-freshly picked leaves e. Before feeding, add the leaf into a pot of boiling water for minutes to break down the cell walls of the leaf. Then rinse in cold water and add into the tank. First do as large of a water change as you can without stressing the fish and make sure you do a gravel vacuum.

Clean your gravel as much as you can as there may be baby worms in it. Treat the tank with the medication. Each 5 gram packet treats 88 gravel substrate bare bottom tank gallons of water. So, when you get a 5 gram packet, add ml of water to it and each 1ml of medication will treat 1 gallon of tank water. Try to keep the lights off when possible as the medication is light sensitive from what I've been told. Control planaria within 72 hours! It's an all natural product which is safe for plants, fish and shrimps.

Dosage is easy and each package contains packet 1, 2 and 3 treats up to 50 litres Wait 24 hours and add packet 2. Wait another 24 hours and add packet 3. To be safe, you can always do a water change 24 hours after adding packet 3 and you're done. It also furthers plant growth and the microbial regeneration of biological filter substrates.

The danger of noxious bacteria is reduced, as these salts especially further the growth of antagonistic beneficial microflora. For keeping and breeding bee shrimp, aim for a pH of under 7. As soon as biological biodegradation processes start in your tank this may happen all by itself. However, if the pH remains higher, the low carbonate hardness KH enables you to influence the pH very easily, e.

Mix with water outside of the aquarium. Please make sure that any undissolved particles go into your tank, too. Close the container tightly after use. For this purpose, an evenly full measuring spoon about 3 g to 20 litres of water is sufficient. RO water, rainwater, fully desalinated water etc.

Especially shrimp from habitats with a neutral pH do very well in water prepared with this mineral salt. Shrimp Mineral dissolves almost completely within seconds, and the water is ready for use at once. Close container after every use at once as this mineral salt absorbs moisture. Use Shrimp Mineral to re-mineralise RO water, rainwater, fully desalinated water etc.

For this purpose, an evenly full measuring spoon about 2 g to 10 litres of water is sufficient. Minerals and trace elements, Sulawesi Mineral 7. It buffers the pH at around 7. Cardinal shrimp Caridia dennerli breeders have been using it very successfully. This mineral salt furthers the microbial regeneration of biological filter substrates. The shrimp originating from Lake Towuti on Sulawesi e. Thus we went to the Ancient Lakes on Sulawesi again in after our initial trip in in order to have a closer look at the conditions in the habitat and to take water samples to have them analysed here.

The results of these analyses show fundamental differences of the water chemistry of the Malili Lakes in comparison with generally known types of lacustrian waters. Here we had to completely rework the mineral constellation; the result of these efforts is the salt Sulawesi Mineral 8. Less finicky Sulawesi shrimp like the freshwater cardinal shrimp Caridina dennerli can be kept and bred with positive outcomes both with Sulawesi Mineral 7. For the more susceptible shrimps we hope to achieve long-term successful breeding by the use of Sulawesi Mineral 8.

Add Sulawesi Mineral 7. It will almost totally dissolve within seconds, and the water is ready for use immediately. We recommend adapting the temperature of the new water to that in your tank. Please make sure to add any undissolved particles to your tank, too.

Close the container after every use. This corresponds to a slightly heaped measuring spoon around 3. Minerals and trace elements, Sulawesi Mineral 8. It serves for mineralising RO water, rainwater, fully desalinated water etc. Water remineralised with this mineral salt will result in an almost exact copy of the water of Lake Towuti and a correspondingly high pH of 8.

Add Sulawesi Mineral 8. It will almost totally dissolve if CO2 is added for a few days. On regular CO2-Quantity one bubble per second the salt dissolved totally into approx.

If you use CO2 to dissolve the mineral salt, please make sure you aerate the water afterwards for at least three hours with an air stone in order to expel the CO2!

Afterwards, the water is ready for use. Close the container after use. This corresponds to a slightly heaped measuring spoon around 3 g to 20 litres of water. This also works for tanks with shrimps. Instructions of use - Mix with water outside of the aquarium. Softwater Mineral dissolves almost completely within seconds, and the water is ready for use at once. Water conditioning and care, Easy Filter Powder is a natural, high-performance filtering powder that enables you to easily make your own liquid filter medium for conditioning and clearing up aquarium water.

Also suitable for ponds and marine aquaria. Immediately after being added to the tank, Easy Filter Powder starts cleaning the water. The water remains turbid for some hours while the filter powder is active. For monthly care, for conditioning and cleaning fresh water during a water change, and for alleviating problems.

Add the necessary amount of Easy Filter Powder to a glass of water, stir thoroughly and add the fluid filter medium you have just created to your tank immediately. If used to alleviate problems or to remove pharmaceutical residue, use double or triple amount. It is quite easy to prepare a supply of fluid filter medium in a bottle. Take a bottle with a cap e. Close the bottle tighly and shake. You can use the fluid filter medium you have thus created for a long time. Strongly shake the bottle for 20 seconds before adding the required amount of fluid filter medium to your tank.

Use immediately after shaking. Dosage for creating a supply of fluid filter medium: Nutrient for helping for plant growth and reddening of plants with red pigmentation. The chelated iron we carry is chelated with DTPA and is rated as stable ie still chelating the iron. For a much wider range of pH, whereas EDTA is rated as stable for only a very narrow range of pH, which often is outside the range that most aquariums are kept.

The more stable the chelate is, the longer the iron remains reduced, and thus better available to the plants. There's no need to decide what to mix as it's already premixed for you. Each portion makes ml of fertilizer. It's an inexpensive way to fertilize your aquarium plants! A good rule of thumb is to start off adding 1 drop per 2. After a week, if you notice that algae is starting to grow, then you can cut back on the dosing.

If nothing is happening, then you can add more fertilizer, however if you are noticing some growth, you can continue with the same dosing. By trail and error, you will discover what works in your tank. Tools and Misc section. Fish bags - 1mm 14x3. Fish bags - 2mm 6x12".

Fish bags - 2mm 8x15". Flexible hose cleaner cm long for filter hoses, pipes, lily piples. Glass cover hooks 6mm for rimless tanks set of 4 with rubber. Heatpack - Pro Heat 40 hour heat packs. PH Meter - Electronic comes with a set of calibration chemicals. Stainless Steel Mesh about 7x7cm, great for tying moss or plants and making moss walls, custom sizes available, contact us for details. Thermometer - Marina floating thermometer. Electronic TDS Meter - excellent for testing the correct amount of minerals for shrimp tanks.

White suction cup divider holders holds 6mm thick dividers. These are great pleco caves for smaller bristlenose plecos or zebra plecos. These are great pleco caves for bristlenose plecos and smaller hypancistrus plecos.

The opening is D shaped for those who prefer the smoother shape. These are great pleco caves for larger plecos. These caves are also longer than the standard cave.

These are great little caves for small apistogrammas or dwarf cichlids to live and breed in. It is a great choice for a tank with a wide variety of species.

It features whole krill meal as the primary ingredient, which is one of the most widely accepted feed ingredients available anywhere. Everybody loves krill, which also contains high levels of chitin that are beneficial for fin development. Community Plus has moderate protein levels to reduce water fouling and satisfy the needs of a wide variety of species. It includes whole sardine meal, whole squid meal, and whole krill meal as its primary ingredients.

Meat Pie replicates protein levels of whole aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, insects, and mollusks as a staple diet for carnivores. Meat Pie is also perfect for use in reptiles and amphibians such as various carnivorous species of turtles, newts, and lizards.

Super Green - This formula is specifically designed for freshwater green algae grazing species of fish and invertebrates.

It contains moderate levels of protein and the first two ingredients are Chlorella and Spirulina Algae. This formula contains no animal based ingredients and is Vegan. Great for Livebearers, Gouramis, Catfish and even Amphibians. Insects are raised in the USA on high-quality ingredients!

Our Meal Replacement Gel for Invertivores of all kinds. All Proteins and Fats come from Invertebrates. Contains No Fish Meal. RedRum - This Carotenoid Supplement gel premix is designed to be mixed with Repashy's fresh and saltwater formulas. Supplementing carotenoids can restore natural coloration in specimens that have been feeding on a deficient diet. Shrimp Soufflé is high in calcium, and has double the carotenoid levels of the other Repashy Gel formulas to provide essential nutrients for a strong exoskeleton and great coloration.

Omnivorous species of shrimps, crabs, and crayfish, as well as many species of loaches have an extremely high attraction to mollusks, therefore whole squid a mollusk is the primary ingredient in this formula to maximize palatability.

It has moderate levels of proteins from a combination of algae, aquatic animals, green plants, and yeast to replicate the diverse diet of scavenging species. Shrimp Soufflé is also ideal for omnivorous species, particularly as a color enhancer because of its higher carotenoid levels.

Spawn and Grow - This formula is designed for broodstock conditioning and the initial raising of fry. This formula was designed to be used for conditioning of omnivores and piscivores and it is not recommended for strict herbivores.

Carnivorous species that specialize in eating insect larvae, eggs, and other high fat food sources, may find this a good staple diet. It also contains additional Arachidonic Acid ARA , which is considered by many to be an essential fatty acid in Marine fish species that are not able to synthesize it from the conversion of Alpha Linolenic Acid. ARA has been shown to increase spawning activity, fertility, and fry survival.

It has also shown to be valuable in reducing stress. Taurine is a free amino acid that, because it is also has high activity as an anti-oxidant, can quickly be depleted in processed meals. Repashy has doubled the amount of Vitamin C in this formula compared to their regular diets, and they uses the highly stable form Ascorbic Acid Phosphate. Great food for plecos, shrimps and bottom feeders of all size - 0.

Great starter food for fry and a nice treat for small fish. Easy to keep and multiplies quickly. To keep cultures reproducing, all you need to do is feed with some white bread or quick oats and mix with a bit of water. These shrimps grow to be no larger than 1cm. They are great food for fish 1" or larger. They are easy to keep and a great treat for fish. It is fun to watch the fish chase down their food! Newly hatched baby brine shrimp.

Please give us at least 24 hours notice and specify if you want them in salt water they stay alive longer or in fresh water shorter life span but you can feed them to your animals right away.

The Nitex is also so fine that it never looses any baby brine shrimp unlike the cheaper nets. ADA products The below listed items are just a small sample of what we carry. ADA Glass lid for P tank you need 2 to cover whole tank. AminoVita-P - 50 grams nutrition enhancer - Benefits: Promote the division and growth of cells, Immune-boosting and survival-enhancing effect.

White Pellet - 50 grams Premium calcium and mineral supplement - Benefits: BioMax 1 shrimp food for babies - 50 grams - 0. BioMax 1 designed for baby shrimp and contains valuable nutrients in order to improve survival rates. BioMax 3 shrimp food for adults - 50 grams - 1. BioMax 3 designed for adult shrimp offering select nutrients with breeding promotion. Benibachi Breeding Liquid - This is a highly concentrated Chitin-based additive that promotes breeding.

Use it when breeding slows down in your tank. Ebiken Kou powder contains instruction card - Kou, is a high quality old sea mud for shrimp tanks. This specific product is in powder form and can be used during the setup of a new tank or maintenance of a tank.

It helps increase beneficial bacteria, bacterial activity, deodorize water, helps stabilize water, and improves water quality by removing toxins. White mineral rock 30g - a calcium bentonite based mineral rock that has a very high composition of calcium which invertebrates use to help with molting and aid in thicker and shinier whites. To attain supplemental minerals, i nvertebrates can easily pick from it. Use at least 10 grams for every gallons of water. For best results, frequently use a tooth brush to brush the surface of the mineral rock.

White mineral rock 50g - a calcium bentonite based mineral rock that has a very high composition of calcium which invertebrates use to help with molting and aid in thicker and shinier whites. Dried Mulberry Leaves - Great food for all types of shrimps and algae eating fish species. The leaves are sold as dry leaves and can be stored in a cool dry place. Leaves are smaller than the organic leaves.

Continue with the regular feedings and don't do another water change for at least 2 days. Then, on the third or fourth day you can do another major water change.

I'd wait for about 1 month before I treat the tank again as you may not get all the worms in the first shot e.

Types of skeletons and their distribution