BMW Vision iNext concept unveiled, previews EV for 2021
Believe it or not, a single REP MOVSW instruction can lose as much as , word-sized memory accesses x 4 cycles, or , cycles to the 8-bit bus cycle-eater! You also know now why it is that you must time your code if you want to know how fast it really is. We decided to quicken the maximum torque to and eliminate any lag in the power gain from to rpm. My fuel consumption surprise me!!! UPS engine fire at Las Vegas.
Produced from to , 1, aircraft were delivered. Originally developed as a shorter, lower-cost twin-engine airliner derived from Boeing's and , the has developed into a family of nine passenger models with a capacity of 85 to passengers. The design was launched in to fill the gap between the and the , and competed with the Airbus A and McDonnell Douglas MD It stretched the another 10 ft 3.
It included a tail bumper to prevent tailscrapes during take-off an early issue with the , and a strengthened wing spar. The prototype rolled out on January 26, , and flew for the first time on 19 February The aircraft entered service on September 15, , with launch customer Piedmont Airlines 25 aircraft ordered. The F was not a model delivered by Boeing but a converted to an all cargo aircraft. Alaska Airlines was the first to convert one of their s from regular service to an aircraft with the ability to handle 10 pallets.
The airline has also converted five more into fixed combi aircraft for half passenger and freight. Service ceiling 37, ft Cruising speed Mach 0. Following its introduction in , the Boeing became a major success with airlines and the flying public.
As the world's first wide-body jetliner, the had revolutionized air travel, and cemented its manufacturer's dominance in the passenger aircraft market. The first NUS was delivered to launch customer Northwest Airlines on January 26, , with service entry on February 9 with a flight from Minneapolis to Phoenix. This jet became known for an incident on Northwest Flight 85 caused by a rudder hardover. This was the twentieth anniversary of the 's first flight. On May 31, , Singapore Airlines operated the first international service using a , on a flight from Singapore to London.
The 's leasing, resale and salvage value has dropped steeply because it is relatively expensive to operate. As many s are now more than 20 years old, airlines are beginning to replace them.
Airlines using the have accelerated its retirement as of and are replacing the model with more fuel efficient aircraft. The main appeal of the like its predecessors was its range rather than its capacity, and in many cases it has been replaced by wide-body twin-engine aircraft of similar range such as the Boeing and Boeing It features two turbofan engines mounted on underwing pylons and a third engine at the base of the vertical stabilizer.
The DC has range for medium - to long-haul flights, capable of carrying a maximum of passengers. The DC was intended as a successor to the McDonnell Douglas's DC-8 for long-range operations, using a wide-body layout to greatly increase the capacity of the aircraft. More powerful engines allowed it to be powered by three engines, the minimum allowed at that time for long over-water flights, which reduced maintenance costs relative to a four-engine design.
Sales of the DC fell dramatically; in August , McDonnell Douglas announced that it would end production of the DC, citing a lack of orders for them. Airline industry consensus at the time was that the DC had a poor reputation both for fuel economy and for its overall safety.
In spite of the DC's early difficulties, it ultimately accumulated a good safety record, as design flaws were rectified and fleet hours increased, comparable to similar second-generation passenger jets, as of Externally, the DC can be distinguished from the series by a slight bulge near the front of the nacelle for the 2 tail engine. FSX was the latest incarnation the 10th in the franchise but it is now fostered by Dovetail Games who sell it via Steam.
Since then there have been many updates and improvements. There has been a step-change in development when the simulation moved from 32bit to 64bit programming. Prepared v4 is the start of 64 bit coding and many models will need updates to make them work - a process which is now underway at UKD and will be mentioned in the text.
Bower had departed on June 24 and returned 24 days, 4 hours, 36 minutes and 24 seconds later, averaging The Bell is a family of two-bladed, single- and twin-engined helicopters, manufactured by Bell Helicopter at its Mirabel, Quebec plant. The first Bell A flew on January 10, The JetRanger is popular with news media for traffic and news reporting. The LongRanger is commonly used as an air ambulance and as a corporate transport. Allison Model Number built: The Caravan 1 has had a close association with US package freight specialist Federal Express FedEx , on whose request Cessna especially developed two pure freight versions.
The first of these was the A Cargomaster 40 delivered , the second was the stretched B Super Cargomaster delivered. The first Super Cargomaster flew in and features a 1. It can seat up to 14 passengers. Underbelly cargo pods, floats and skis are offered as options on the Caravan I family, and the type is easily converted from freight to passenger configurations. UK Direct Executive use these useful aircraft for training, lease for self-flying businessmen, and as air taxis.
Range with max fuel and reserves km nm. You must have purchased this model for the repaint to work. UK Direct Air Taxi operates a small fleet of these planes. Visit the AirTaxi webpage for more details. Superb material shines and reflections. Gauges reflections Windows scratches and Blades shines High quality 3D model and textures.
Realistic behavior The download is textures only. The Cessna Skyhawk is an American four-seat, single-engine, high wing, fixed-wing aircraft made by the Cessna Aircraft Company. First flown in , more s have been built than any other aircraft. Measured by its longevity and popularity, the Cessna is the most successful aircraft in history. Cessna delivered the first production model in and as of , the company and its partners had built more than 43, The aircraft remains in production today.
Cessna introduced a retractable landing gear version of the in and named it the Cutlass RG. The Cutlass featured a variable-pitch, constant-speed propeller and a more powerful Lycoming OF1A6 engine of horsepower kW. The RG did not find wide acceptance in the personal aircraft market because of higher initial and operating costs accompanied by mediocre cruising speed, but was adopted by many flight schools since it met the specific requirements for "complex aircraft" experience necessary to obtain a Commercial Pilot certificate the role for which it was intended , at relatively low cost.
Between and RGs were built, with a small number following before production ceased in VC with semi-transparent left yoke. The Piper PA Cherokee is a family of light aircraft designed for flight training, air taxi, and personal use. All members of the PA family are all-metal, unpressurised, single-engine, piston-powered airplanes with low-mounted wings and tricycle landing gear. They all have a single door on the co-pilot side, which is entered by stepping on the wing.
The PA series has had many variants and seen plenty of marketing name changes. The models gained new paint, improved interior and a new avionics package.
First certified on 30 August In Piper first introduced PAR Cherokee Arrow which featured a constant speed propeller and retractable landing gear.
The engine was powered by Horsepower Lycoming O engines. In the engine was upgraded to horsepower, and the designation of the aircraft was changed to PAR Changes to the design included the same With greater rear legroom and more baggage capacity, it is larger than its predecessors and has a larger horizontal tail and dorsal fin fillet. All series of Piper Cherokee family are all-metal, unpressurised, single engine Piston powered aircraft with low mounted wings and tricycle landing gear.
Piper designed the PA to compete with the Cessna UK Direct use these aircraft for training, lease for self-flying businessmen, and as air taxis. First certified on 2 December Custom made xml-gauges, LOD's, camerapositions etc. Developed from the mid s, the Seminole is a twin engined development of the PAR Arrow series, with the Arrow's single engine replaced by two counter rotating kW hp Lycoming Os, plus a new T-tail and semi tapered wings.
The first flight of the prototype was made during May , and production machines, designated PA, were delivered from May The Seminole is still in production today but has modest sales. Just point it to your root FSX folder. It will install seperately to the default Baron so will not disturb it. The default model, sounds and panel are used. The file also includes extra camera views and additional sounds.
The Beechcraft Baron is a four to six seats, light, twin-engined piston aircraft. Barons come in three basic types: The larger, more powerful Baron 58 was developed from the Baron 55, introducing club seating, double aft baggage doors, and new gross weight of 5,lbs.
The lengthening of the fuselage increased rear baggage space, as well as providing more comfortable six-place seating over the Baron 55 and 56TC. G58 Baron Introduced in , currently in production.
Essentially same aircraft as the 58 Baron, with Garmin G glass cockpit avionics. Includes model, panel, VC, sounds. FS9 compatible but must be installed to a blank folder and manually moved into FS The Britten-Norman BN-2 Islander is a s British light utility aircraft, regional airliner and cargo aircraft designed and originally manufactured by Britten-Norman. Design of the Islander started in and the first prototype BN-2 first flew on 13 June The Islander is a high-wing cantilever monoplane with a rectangular fuselage and two wing-mounted engines.
The fuselage, which has a conventional tail unit and fixed tricycle landing gear, will usually accommodate one pilot and up to nine passengers. The production Islander first flew on 24 April and was certified in August An improved version, the BN-2A Islander, first flew in It incorporated aerodynamic and flight equipment improvements as well as changes to the baggage arrangements. Improvements included increased carrying capacity and propeller modifications to reduce noise levels.
Options included a long-nosed version for increased baggage capacity, raked wingtip auxiliary fuel tanks and twin Allison B17C turboprop engines.
The Beechcraft C was developed directly from the Beechcraft Super King Air , the obvious change is the longer fuselage. Other improvements include more powerful engines and improved tail. The first flew on September 3, The entered service in February , with the first ExecLiner corporate version delivered in The improved C developed into the D. The main changes on the D was the substantially deeper fuselage with standup headroom. In addition it also introduced larger passenger and freight doors and windows, twin ventral strakes and auxiliary horizontal fixed tails.
The B is designed to carry passengers in all weather conditions from airports with relatively short runways. It was designed, and is primarily used, as a regional airliner. It is also used as a freight aircraft, corporate transport, and by the United States military and other governments.
A total of Beechcraft aircraft were built, making this airliner the best-selling 19 passenger airliner in history. With market trends favouring larger to seat regional jets, Raytheon ended production of the Beechcraft in October Many airlines continue to fly the Cruise kts Ceiling 25, ft Range 1, miles with 10 pax, UK Direct typically flies the over shorter distances mainly on internal domestic flights with higher seat occupancy. Accurate and pleasant flight dynamics. When Fairchild exited the aircraft manufacturing business in after about 40 units, Saab continued aircraft production under the designation A and units were built.
The first improved development of the Saab was the B. More powerful engines improved hot and high performance, while other changes included a greater span tailplane, a higher max takeoff weight and better range. All the Bs also had the active noise control system. The final third generation version, the B Plus, was delivered for service in and incorporated improvements that were being introduced at the same time in the Saab The production run of Saab s typically seated between 30 and 36 passengers, with 34 seats being the most common configuration.
There are also several military variants. Saab ceased and production in Functional Virtual cockpit Orignal prop sound Ground service animation included. FSX DX10 preview compatible. VC only, no 2D panel. While the DC-3's and DC-4's civilian careers were interrupted by WW2, the opposite applies to the DC-6, which started off in response to a military airlift requirement, and went on to become Douglas' most successful four engined piston airliner.
The DC-6B was the epitome of the radial piston engine passenger aircraft. Powerful, noisy and smoky on engine start-up, the DC-6B was flown all over the world and opened up air travel on every continent. The aircraft was a true success story, with some of the aircraft that were built still in service today, predominantly in cargo roles.
However early service was not smooth with the fleet grounded for four months from November that year after two internal fuselage fires in flight, one being fatal, caused by fuel venting entering the cabin heater ram air intake.
Production ended in with airframes delivered. Payware model available from here: The ATR was the third development of the base model and improved hot and high performance; certificated in early Passengers board using the rear door which is rare for a passenger plane as the front door is used to load cargo.
A tail stand must be installed when passengers are boarding or disembarking in case the nose lifts off the ground, which is common if the aircraft is loaded or unloaded incorrectly Cruise speed: All models produced after include the Active Noise and Vibration Suppression ANVS system designed to reduce cabin noise and vibration levels to nearly those of jet airliners.
These were marketed as the Q series Q, Q, and Q In April , Bombardier announced that production of the Classic versions Series , , would be ended, leaving the Series as the only Dash 8 still in production.
Full documentation including key bindings for animations included. Model by AlphaSim The C Hercules is the longest continuously produced military aircraft at over 60 years. The Lockheed C Hercules is a four-engine turboprop military transport aircraft designed and built originally by Lockheed now Lockheed Martin. Capable of using unprepared runways for takeoffs and landings, the C was originally designed as a troop, medevac, and cargo transport aircraft.
The C entered service with the U. The initial production model, the CA, was powered by Allison TA-9 turboprops with three-blade propellers, The first flight of the prototype was made on 23 August from the Lockheed plant in Burbank, California.
The C's lack of range became apparent and additional fuel capacity was added with wing pylon-mounted tanks The CB model was developed to complement the A-models that had previously been delivered, and incorporated new features, particularly increased fuel capacity in the form of auxiliary tanks built into the center wing section and an AC electrical system.
Four-bladed Hamilton Standard propellers were fitted as well as uprated engines. This model is the newest version and the only model in production.
Externally similar to the classic Hercules in general appearance, the J model has new turboprop engines, six-bladed propellers, digital avionics, and other new systems. Fokker's largest aircraft, the Fokker is a seat jet airliner based on the F Fellowship, but stretched and thoroughly modernised.
In August , Fokker aircraft remained in airline service with 47 airlines around the world. Range with passengers and Tay s km nm. The Fokker is a seat jet airliner and the largest member of the family. Design work on the CRJ by Bombardier started in and the programme was officially launched in January Seating ranges from 66 to The CRJ features a new wing with leading edge slats and a stretched and slightly widened fuselage, with a lowered floor. Depending upon payload, the CRJ can travel up to 2, miles 3, km with current engines, and a new variant with CFC5 engines will be able to travel up to 2, miles 4, km.
The CRJ comes in three versions: Series , Series , and Series The is limited to 68 passengers, the to 70 passengers, and the to 78 passengers. The ER version has an increase in fuel capacity as well as maximum weight, which in turn increases the range. The LR increases those values further.
Maximum speed is Mach 0. Its improvements and conic nozzle enhances fuel economy by 5. The airplane is loosely based on the CRJ series with a few major improvements. The CRJ competes with the Embraer , and is more efficient per seat-mile, according to Bombardier.
The wing is wider with added leading edge slats, the tail is redesigned with more span and anhedral. The cabin floor has been lowered 2 inches which gains outward visibility from the windows in the cabin as the windows become closer to eye level height.
Its maximum ground takeoff weight is 84, pounds. The engines are controlled by FADEC digital engine control instead of control cables and a fuel control unit. The environmental packs have a target temperature instead of a hot-cold knob. The cabin has a recirculation fan which aids in cooling and heating. In typical service the CRJ can cruise 8—10, ft higher with a slightly higher fuel burn and an average true airspeed of — knots, a significant improvement over its predecessor.
The ERJ is the largest of the group. Each jet in the series is powered by two Rolls-Royce turbofan engines. The family's primary competition comes from the Bombardier CRJ regional jets. UK Direct employs these jets primarily on short-haul international and UK domestic turns for which they are ideal. Around regional jets from the ERJ family delivered by Embraer are currently flying on five continents and are operated by more than 30 airlines. They are not shrunk from larger or stretched from smaller designs.
The prototype first flew on 12th March Service ceiling 41, feet: The BAe is a short haul jet of which were built between and in passenger, pure freighter and quick change versions. From , aircraft feature EFIS displays. The QT is a separate model with side opening cargo door. Panel and sound is aliased to the other BAe on this site. If that is not installed you will need to manually add a panel and sound.
The QT Quiet Trader is the cargo variant. The based Avro RJ85 was the first member of the new family to fly, on March 23 The biggest member of the family, the based RJ, first flew on May 13 The based RJ70 was delivered from late but due to low customer interest, only 12 were sold.
Weight and drag savings were introduced in The RJ was also offered as the RJ with extra emergency exits to seat to in a high density six abreast configuration. None were built however. The RJ series was originally manufactured and marketed by Avro International Aerospace, a separate British Aerospace company, so named as RJ production was undertaken at the former Avro factory near Manchester most s were built at Hatfield. The last RJ was delivered in Range with max fuel km nm , range with max payload km nm.
The Airbus A is a short- to medium-range wide-body jet airliner. Launched in as the world's first twin-engined widebody the AB4 the 9th A first flew on 25 December Alarmed by the success of the A, Boeing responded with the new Boeing A technologically advanced plane it influenced later subsonic airliner designs. The highlights include Advanced wings by de Havilland later BAE Systems with supercritical airfoil section for economical performance and advanced aerodynamically efficient flight controls.
It was the first airliner to be fitted with wind shear protection, Advanced autopilots and Electrically controlled braking systems. Later As incorporated other advances such as 2-man crew by automating the flight engineer's functions, an industry first, Glass cockpit, and wingtip fences first introduced on the A The basic fuselage of the A was later stretched A and A , and shortened A The final production A made its initial flight on 18 April , Airbus has announced a support package to keep As flying commercially until at least The A family eventually sold with around still in service.
Freighter version of the AB First delivery occurred in , but only very few were built as the AF was soon replaced by the more capable AF official designation: Cargo capacity main deck 15 pallets, lower deck 23 LD3 containers Cruising speed Mach 0.
Uses FSX default A sounds, virtual cockpit and panel. For FS use version below. The A is a minimum change, shortened derivative of the highly successful A The A family share a wider fuselage than the competing Boeing and has a thinner, longer wing for fuel efficiency.
The A has the longest range of any type in its size range. Other changes included reducing overwing exits from four to two and a smaller aft cargo door. Minor software programming changes were made to accommodate the different handling characteristics but otherwise the A shares the same fly-by-wire flight controls and state-of-the-art cockpit as the other A Family members meaning the A, A and A can all be flown by pilots with the same type rating.
The A flew for the first time on August 25 from Hamburg in Germany. Seats passengers in a typical two class configuration eight premium class and economy class. Range with passengers in a two-class configuration extends to 6, km 3, nmi.
Cruising speed Mach 0. It is the most successful of Airbus' aircraft with over 7, delivered and 5, on order as of June The first member of the A family—the A—was launched in March , and first flew on 22 February The A was the first civil airliner to include a full digital fly-by-wire flight control system. At the time of the aircraft's introduction, the behaviour of the fly-by-wire system equipped with full flight envelope protection was a new experience for many pilots.
Its design also included a full glass cockpit rather than the hybrid versions found in previous airliners. Typical Cruise Speed at 37, feet: The simplest way to install is to use the Aerosoft Livery Manager.
An A is also available on a separate page. The Airbus A family consists of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger twin-engine jet airliners manufactured by Airbus. The As are also named Aceo current engine option since December , when Airbus announced a new generation of the A family, the Aneo new engine option. The Aneo offers new, more efficient engines, combined with airframe improvements and the addition of winglets, named Sharklets by Airbus. The largest of the A family the A was the first derivative of the successful A, the major change being a stretched fuselage acheived by two fuselage plugs.
Other differences include larger engines and tyres, strengthened undercarriage and some wing improvements. The cockpit remains the same and shares the same pilot type rating.
The A was the first stretch of the A but as the fuel tanks were unchanged it had a shorter range so Airbus soon launched the with additional fuel tanks. Private pilots can only enter the airspace surrounding an airway when conditions are the VFR, and are restricted from airway airspace when the weather is below VFR minimum conditions. Student pilots must therefore learn how to map out the boundaries of these airways.
Airways have specified dimensions indicated on charts; they are always controlled airspace and therefore specified weather minima apply to VFR flight. Where airways penetrate designated airports surrounded by Class C or D airspace, as indicated on charts, the respective rules of Class C or D airspace also apply.
Airways between NDBs have the same base and ceiling, but their minimum width is 4. The special weather minima for airways are described below see other controlled airspace. Control Zones surround specified airports indicated on charts.
Control zones are the only instance where control airspace—as well as the associated higher weather minima described below—extend to the surface. The purpose of control zones is to restrict VFR aircraft from operating in the vicinity of the airport when IFR traffic is making instrument approaches in conditions of low ceilings and poor visibility.
This expanded controlled airspace is designed to provide separation between aircraft in high-density traffic areas or separation between IFR and VFR traffic. Large transport aircraft, for example, will require more than 7 NM to descend for landing. Flight in all airspace is restricted to conditions above established weather minima—distance from existing clouds and flight visibility. Pilots must know the minima. As discussed above, there are two rules—weather minima for controlled airspace, and minima for uncontrolled airspace.
Accordingly, VFR weather minimum varies with the following airspace categories, described in the table above. Special VFR is never offered—it must be requested by the pilot. The minimum for Special VFR is 1-mile flight and ground visibility when reported. At night Special VFR will only be authorized for the purpose of landing at a destination airport.
On the basis of a Terminal Aerodrome Forecast TAF or a Geographic Area Forecast GFA , 7 the weather at the destination airport must be scattered or clear, with no forecast of precipitation, fog, thunderstorms, or blowing snow; where a TAF is used, these conditions must be forecast for a period no less than 1 hour before and 2 hours after the ETA; where an FA is used, these conditions must be forecast no less than 1 hour before and 3 hours after the ETA.
Remember that true tracks are used in the Northern Domestic Airspace. The Southern Domestic Airspace is referred to as the Altimeter Setting Region, and in this region the altimeter must be continually set to the nearest reported altimeter setting.
Before takeoff, the altimeter must be set to the airport reported setting, or, if not available, the airport elevation. During flight, it must be set to the setting of the nearest reporting station FSS or control tower. Prior to landing, it must be set to the destination airport if available.
Northern Domestic Airspace is referred to as the Standard Pressure Region, where it is required that the Altimeter be set to The exception to this is prior to descent for landing and before taking off, when the airport setting, if available, or elevation is required. A Flight Plan see copy, P. After these times search and rescue action is started. Flight Itineraries can be used instead of Flight Plans.
The content of a Flight Itinerary is identical to the content of a Flight Plan. Note that the responsible person must be advised how to advise ATS of overdue status. NOTAMS—which stands for Notices to Airpersons—are notices issued to pilots concerning the establishment, condition or change in any aeronautical facility, service, procedure or hazard. The idea is that a pilot who obtains a pre-flight briefing that includes NOTAMS will be informed of all up-to-the-minute information related to the flight.
If you are required to read NOTAM text which is quite rare , it is important that you understand the validity times. In the example presented above, the NOTAM—which informs pilots of the closure of the grass runway at Langley Airport CYNJ —has a continuity number the first two numbers in this sequence being the year of issue, and the remaining numbers being the number sequence within that year. The grass runway is scheduled to be closed until approximately UTC on May 6th.
Testing of an ELT must be conducted only during the first five minutes of any hour and the test time must not exceed 5 seconds. There are three types of priority radio communication that are recognized which are related to safety in air operations. At the top of the list is what are referred to as distress radio transmissions. A distress message can only be sent under the authority of the Pilot-in-command, and all stations—air and ground—must cease any transmission so as to ensure communications from the distressed party are not blocked or interrupted.
Next are urgency radio transmissions. Normal communications must be suspended until the matter is resolved. The third priority in radio communication is referred to as safety messages. While this does not yet appear on VHF navigation charts, this area includes much of the airspace in the provinces. Dedicated codes also exist for communication loss and flight emergencies; in the event of a communication failure, Code should be selected; in the event of an emergency, Code should be selected.
Taking into account flying conditions, a VFR flight must have fuel sufficient to fly during the day to the intended place of landing, plus an additional 30 minutes at normal cruising speeds. For night flight, the fuel reserves must be extended to 45 minutes. In calculating fuel requirements, the pilot is required to make allowance for taxiing and foreseeable delays prior to takeoff, meteorological conditions, foreseeable air traffic routings and traffic delays, and, as is written in CAR It is illegal to refuel a private aircraft with the engine running, or while passengers are on board.
If a private pilot wishes to fly with passengers, he or she can only fly an aircraft category, class, or type that is endorsed on his licence. To fly with passengers, a pilot must have flown at least five takeoffs and landings in aircraft of the same category and class within the preceding six months. To fly with passengers at night, the required five takeoffs and landings must have been flown at night within the preceding six months.
A pilot is required to desist from flying when he is aware of acquired physical disabilities that make him unable to pass his medical. No person will fly while under the effect of a drug that compromises the safety of flight, while under the influence of alcohol, or within 8 hours of consuming an alcoholic beverage. With spinal or general anaesthetics, a pilot should not fly until a doctor says it is safe to do so.
With respect to local anaesthetics involving extensive procedures such as the removal of several wisdom teeth , a pilot should not fly for 24 hours. Wake turbulence is caused by wing tip vortices that are produced by the air pressure differential above and below the wing. The vortex can produce structural loads as high as 10g. Gusts near thunderstorms can exceed 45 fps. The strongest vortices are generated by heavy weight, clean configuration, at slow speeds.
Accordingly, the worst is a heavy jet during touchdown and takeoff phases. Helicopters produce dangerously concentrated vortices. It takes 2 minutes for the strength of vortices to dissipate the smoother the air [non-turbulent], the slower the dissipation. Vortices tend to spread out at a speed of 5 KT. A 5 KT crosswind can therefore hold one of the vortices over the touchdown or takeoff area, or cause them to migrate to adjacent runways. Be aware but you need not memorize that a three-minute separation interval is applied by controllers in a non-radar environment to any aircraft that takes off following a heavy aircraft, or any light aircraft following a medium if.
In all cases, ATC tower controllers will advise affected pilots when the interval has been applied; for example,.
To facilitate occasions when the threat of wake turbulence is reduced—as may be the case with a steady crosswind—pilots may waiver the applicable time spacing interval. Extreme caution must be used when manoeuvring on the ground at airports where jet operations occur.
As a rule, never taxi behind a jet aircraft unless you can be assured that the engines are not operating; if operating, the following are published distances that can be used for reference:.
In the case of infants less than 2 years of age, the infant must be securely held in the arms of adult when seat belts are required to be worn. The Pilot-in-command or a qualified pilot must remain in his seat belt during flight time.
The following apply primarily to unpressurized aircraft, but are applicable to the cabin-pressure altitude of pressurized aircraft.
The Pilot Operating Handbook, interception orders , and aircraft weight and balance report must also be on board. No person shall conduct a take-off in a power-driven aircraft for the purpose of day VFR flight unless it is equipped with. Emergency checks must specify emergency operation of hydraulic, electrical, and mechanical systems, emergency operation of instruments and controls, engine inoperative procedures, and any other procedures necessary for aviation safety. All checks and emergency procedures must be performed and followed by the flight crew.
All aircraft must have accessible in the cockpit a suitable, non-toxic, and readily available fire extinguisher. Each crewmember excluding passengers must have access to a functioning timepiece and, when operating at night, a functioning flashlight.
Except when undertaking flight within 25 nautical miles of the airport of departure where continuous radio contact with base station is possible for the duration of flight, no person can operate an aircraft without specified survival equipment. With respect to flight over water, a single-engine aircraft operating beyond gliding distance from shore must be equipped with one lifejacket for each individual on board.
If a single-engine aircraft is operated over water beyond nautical miles from a suitable emergency landing site, or if the aircraft is operated over water beyond a distance at which the same landing site cannot be reached within 30 minutes at the cruising speed specified in the flight plan or flight itinerary, the aircraft must be equipped with life raft sufficient in total rated capacity to accommodate all persons on board. With respect to a multi-engine aircraft unable to maintain flight with any engine failed, the above NM or 30 minute above rule applies.
In the case of multi-engine aircraft capable of maintaining flight with any engine failed, the distance is extended to NM and the time is extended to 60 minutes.
Prior to beginning a flight, the pilot-in-command must be familiar with all available information appropriate to the intended flight. Beginning a flight, the pilot-in-command must be familiar with all available weather information appropriate to the intended flight.
No person shall create a hazard to persons or property by dropping an object from the aircraft during flight. No person shall operate an aircraft in proximity to another aircraft that may create a risk of collision.
An aircraft engine shall not be started unless a competent person occupies the pilot seat, or the aircraft is prevented from moving forward. No person shall leave an aircraft engine running unless a competent person is at the controls or, where no person is on board, precautions have been made to prevent the aircraft from moving forward and the aircraft is not unattended.
A pilot must land when instructed to do so by an air traffic control unit, peace officer, customs or immigration officer, officer of the Armed Forces, or person authorized by the Minister. All crewmembers shall, during flight time, obey the orders, instruction, and commands of the Pilot-in-command.
When two aircraft are approaching head-on, each shall alter course to the right. When two aircraft are converging, the one on the right has the right of way, but must take whatever action necessary to avoid collision.
Based on manoeuvrability, aircraft have priority of right of way in the following order: Fixed or free balloons, gliders, airships, and fixed or rotary wing aeroplanes. The 10 Most-contravened Canadian Aviation Regulations. This is required if you should land at Chilliwack, for example.
The registry records the aircraft and pilot information, as well as the arrival and departure time of the aircraft, as well as its proposed destination.
In the event that an aircraft is missing, the registries will be used during the search response, so it is important to use them properly. The content of this website is protected by copyright and reproduction in whole or in part is only authorized with the written consent of David L Parry, Chief Flying Instructor, Langley Flying School. Instructor Evaluations Student Feedback: Aircraft Improvements Student Feedback: Facilities Improvements Student Feedback: Airports Two types of airports exist in Canada: NORDO no radio aircraft operate freely at uncontrolled airports.
Airspace Classification The geographic classification of Canadian Airspace is specified in the Designated Airspace Handbook, something that is rarely seen in pilot bags, but which is available should detailed reference to airspace dimensions be required.