Presumably because of their greater lean mass proportions, men tend to lose more weight than women do when caloric deficits are similar. The major adverse effects reported were flatulence, bloating, diarrhea, and loose stools. Adiposity and cancer at major anatomical sites: However, fenfluramine was withdrawn in along with D-fenfluramine because of the potential for adverse cardiac, valvular, and pulmonary hypertensive effects in patients taking this drug. Views Read Edit View history. FDA plans meeting to discuss safety data on breast implants U.
Patient Screening, Assessment, and Expectations
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Effects of bariatric surgery on mortality in Swedish obese subjects. Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from to Katyal N, Bollu PC. Obesity and chronic kidney disease: Serve d as a director, officer, partner, employee, advisor, consultant or trustee for: Receieved consulting fee Sanofi Aventis for teaching.
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Share Email Print Feedback Close. Approach Considerations Treatment of obesity starts with comprehensive lifestyle management ie, diet, physical activity, behavior modification , which should include the following [ 10 ]: Self-monitoring of caloric intake and physical activity. Electrolyte derangements - Hypokalemia is the most important of these.
Why - Identify specific reasons for or purpose or benefits of the goal. Weight-Loss Goals In general, body weight and body fat are tenaciously regulated. Weight-Loss Maintenance Evidence from the National Weight Control Registry NWCR , which tracks indices and predictors in individuals who have lost at least 30 pounds and have maintained that loss for at least 1 year, suggests that patterns associated with successful weight maintenance include the following: Treatment of Childhood Obesity In cases of childhood obesity, [ 93 , 94 , 95 ] the goal is not to cause weight loss, but to reduce the rate of weight gain to fit normal growth curves.
The basic principles of management include the following: Reducing time spent in sedentary activities - Eg, watching television. Energy Expenditure and Weight Loss Achieving a caloric deficit is still the most important component in achieving sustained weight loss.
Conventional Diets Conventional diets can be broadly classified into 2 categories: The latter include the following: Low-fat diets - Eg, the Ornish diet. Protein intake of 0. Adequate micronutrients and macronutrients based on the RDAs.
Clinically significant cardiac, renal, hepatic, psychiatric, or cerebrovascular disease. Water Drinking Dennis et al found that in overweight and obese middle-aged and older adults on a hypocaloric diet, drinking water before each main meal aided weight loss.
Exercise Programs Before prescribing an intensive exercise program, clinicians should screen patients for cardiovascular and respiratory adequacy. Behavioral Changes Behavioral modification for weight loss addresses learned behaviors that contribute to excessive food intake, poor dietary choices or habits, and sedentary activity habits.
Antiobesity Medications Few medications are available for the treatment of obesity. Thyroid hormone - Hyperthyroidism, with its attendant sequelae. Phenylpropanolamine - Increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. Fat Substitutes One strategy to prevent obesity that is being explored in the dietary industry involves the use of fat substitutes.
Bariatric Surgery Surgical therapy for obesity bariatric surgery is the only available therapeutic modality associated with clinically significant and relatively sustained weight loss in subjects with morbid obesity associated with comorbidities.
Anastomotic leaks with a potential for mediastinitis or peritonitis. Blind-loop syndrome - Includes enteritis, arthropathy, and liver cirrhosis. As stated by Sacks, F. The DASH diet and the control diet at the lower salt levels were both successful in lowering blood pressure, but the largest reductions in blood pressure were obtained by eating a combination of these two i. The hypertensive subjects experienced an average reduction of From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources.
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Department of Agriculture and U. Department of Health and Human Services Retrieved December 15, Department of Health and Human Services. News Reveals Best Diets Rankings for ". The New England Journal of Medicine.
A meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies". Southern California Urology Institute. Retrieved 21 April From Clinical Trial to Dinner Table".
Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine. The Cleveland Clinic Foundation. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Human nutritions and healthy diets. Omnivore Entomophagy Pescetarian Plant-based. Bodybuilding supplements Meal replacement Therapeutic food.
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