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Presumably because of their greater lean mass proportions, men tend to lose more weight than women do when caloric deficits are similar. The major adverse effects reported were flatulence, bloating, diarrhea, and loose stools. Adiposity and cancer at major anatomical sites: However, fenfluramine was withdrawn in along with D-fenfluramine because of the potential for adverse cardiac, valvular, and pulmonary hypertensive effects in patients taking this drug. Views Read Edit View history. FDA plans meeting to discuss safety data on breast implants U.

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The response to long-term overfeeding in identical twins. Preventing and treating childhood obesity: Common genetic variation near MC4R is associated with waist circumference and insulin resistance. Frayling TM, Ong K. Piecing together the FTO jigsaw. Common variants near MC4R are associated with fat mass, weight and risk of obesity. Genome-wide association scan shows genetic variants in the FTO gene are associated with obesity-related traits.

Developments in obesity genetics in the era of genome-wide association studies. Leptin concentrations are a predictor of overweight reduction in a lifestyle intervention. Int J Pediatr Obes. Melanocortins and body weight: Melanocortin-4 receptor mutations are a frequent and heterogeneous cause of morbid obesity. Obesity as a neuroendocrine disease: Congenital leptin deficiency due to homozygosity for the DeltaG mutation: Plasma procalcitonin is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and the metabolic syndrome.

Perceived weight status, overweight diagnosis, and weight control among US adults: Prevalence of obesity and trends in body mass index among US children and adolescents, Am J Public Health. Neighborhoods, obesity, and diabetes--a randomized social experiment.

National, regional, and global trends in body-mass index since The "thrifty genotype" in BMI was right all along: Association of adolescent obesity with risk of severe obesity in adulthood. Annual deaths attributable to obesity in the United States. Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: Health hazards of obesity.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. Excess deaths associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity. Association between body-mass index and risk of death in more than 1 million Asians. Body-mass index and mortality among 1. General and abdominal obesity and risk of death among black women.

Obesity as a Risk Factor for Prostatic Enlargement: A Retrospective Cohort Study in Korea. Normal body mass index rather than obesity predicts greater mortality in elderly people: J Am Geriatr Soc. BMI and all-cause mortality among Japanese older adults: Child and adolescent fast-food choice and the influence of calorie labeling: Interventions for preventing obesity in children.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. J Am Coll Cardiol. New US obesity guidelines. Treat the weight first. Pharmacological management of obesity: Comparison of range of commercial or primary care led weight reduction programmes with minimal intervention control for weight loss in obesity: Lighten Up randomised controlled trial.

Medications for weight reduction. Med Clin North Am. Benefits of modest weight loss in improving cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes.

Diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index for weight-loss maintenance. Two patterns of adipokine and other biomarker dynamics in a long-term weight loss intervention. Long-term persistence of hormonal adaptations to weight loss.

Long-term effect of intensive lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with diabetes in real-world clinical practice: Proimos J, Sawyer S. Obesity in childhood and adolescence. Body composition and childhood obesity. Older Adults and the Elderly. Rome, October Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN. Correction factors for the calculation of metabolic equivalents MET in overweight to extremely obese subjects. Weight and metabolic outcomes after 2 years on a low-carbohydrate versus low-fat diet: Weight loss with a low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or low-fat diet.

Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone diets for weight loss and heart disease risk reduction: Very low calorie diets. Preoperative very low-calorie diet and operative outcome after laparoscopic gastric bypass: Water consumption increases weight loss during a hypocaloric diet intervention in middle-aged and older adults.

Influence of water drinking on resting energy expenditure in overweight children. Influences of normobaric hypoxia training on physical fitness and metabolic risk markers in overweight to obese subjects. Effect of exercise on month weight loss maintenance in overweight women. Exercise-training enhances fat-free mass preservation during diet-induced weight loss: Weight loss, exercise, or both and physical function in obese older adults. Effects of diet and physical activity interventions on weight loss and cardiometabolic risk factors in severely obese adults: Maintaining a high physical activity level over 20 years and weight gain.

Translating weight loss and physical activity programs into the community to preserve mobility in older, obese adults in poor cardiovascular health. Cognitive and behavioral approaches in the treatment of obesity. The 'Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids' randomized controlled trial: Changes in diet and lifestyle and long-term weight gain in women and men. Insufficient sleep undermines dietary efforts to reduce adiposity.

US Food and Drug Administration. United States Food and Drug Administration. Orlistat, a new lipase inhibitor for the management of obesity. FDA approves Belviq to treat some overweight or obese adults. Schedules of Controlled Substances: Multicenter, placebo-controlled trial of lorcaserin for weight management. A one-year randomized trial of lorcaserin for weight loss in obese and overweight adults: Randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of lorcaserin for weight loss in type 2 diabetes mellitus: FDA approves weight-management drug Saxenda.

Serretti A, Mandelli L. Antidepressants and body weight: Methylphenidate reduces energy intake and dietary fat intake in adults: Zonisamide for weight loss in obese adults: Octreotide therapy of pediatric hypothalamic obesity: Role of metformin for weight management in patients without type 2 diabetes. Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on weight loss: Bupropion for weight reduction.

Cannabinoid receptor antagonists and obesity. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. Effects of the cannabinoid-1 receptor blocker rimonabant on weight reduction and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight patients: A catechin-rich beverage improves obesity and blood glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes.

The role of pramlintide for weight loss. Inhibition of food intake in obese subjects by peptide YY PYY as an anti-obesity drug target. Peptide YY is a regulator of energy homeostasis in obese children before and after weight loss. Efficacy of metreleptin in obese patients with type 2 diabetes: Novel strategy for the use of leptin for obesity therapy. Expert Opin Biol Ther. Bariatric surgery and long-term cardiovascular events.

Perioperative safety in the longitudinal assessment of bariatric surgery. Vertical banded gastroplasty for the treatment of morbid obesity. The Greenville gastric bypass. Progress report at 3 years. Morbidity and mortality before and after bariatric surgery for morbid obesity compared with the general population. Bariatric surgery versus conventional medical therapy for type 2 diabetes. Weight loss, cardiovascular risk factors, and quality of life after gastric bypass and duodenal switch: Hedberg J, Sundbom M.

Superior weight loss and lower HbA1c 3 years after duodenal switch compared with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass--a randomized controlled trial. Surg Obes Relat Dis. Gastric pacing as therapy for morbid obesity: Absence of an effect of liposuction on insulin action and risk factors for coronary heart disease. Postoperative metabolic and nutritional complications of bariatric surgery.

Gastroenterol Clin North Am. Abbott Laboratories agrees to withdraw its obesity drug Meridia. Food and Drug Administration. Reductions in medications with substantial weight loss with behavioral intervention. FDA approves weight-management drug Qsymia. A controlled pharmacogenetic trial of sibutramine on weight loss and body composition in obese or overweight adults. Effect of sibutramine on cardiovascular outcomes in overweight and obese subjects. Diagnostic performance of BMI percentiles to identify adolescents with metabolic syndrome.

Gastric band is first step surgery for morbidly obese teens. Bariatric surgery versus intensive medical therapy in obese patients with diabetes.

Effects of bariatric surgery on mortality in Swedish obese subjects. Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from to Katyal N, Bollu PC. Obesity and chronic kidney disease: Serve d as a director, officer, partner, employee, advisor, consultant or trustee for: Receieved consulting fee Sanofi Aventis for teaching.

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Share Email Print Feedback Close. Approach Considerations Treatment of obesity starts with comprehensive lifestyle management ie, diet, physical activity, behavior modification , which should include the following [ 10 ]: Self-monitoring of caloric intake and physical activity. Electrolyte derangements - Hypokalemia is the most important of these.

Why - Identify specific reasons for or purpose or benefits of the goal. Weight-Loss Goals In general, body weight and body fat are tenaciously regulated. Weight-Loss Maintenance Evidence from the National Weight Control Registry NWCR , which tracks indices and predictors in individuals who have lost at least 30 pounds and have maintained that loss for at least 1 year, suggests that patterns associated with successful weight maintenance include the following: Treatment of Childhood Obesity In cases of childhood obesity, [ 93 , 94 , 95 ] the goal is not to cause weight loss, but to reduce the rate of weight gain to fit normal growth curves.

The basic principles of management include the following: Reducing time spent in sedentary activities - Eg, watching television. Energy Expenditure and Weight Loss Achieving a caloric deficit is still the most important component in achieving sustained weight loss.

Conventional Diets Conventional diets can be broadly classified into 2 categories: The latter include the following: Low-fat diets - Eg, the Ornish diet. Protein intake of 0. Adequate micronutrients and macronutrients based on the RDAs.

Clinically significant cardiac, renal, hepatic, psychiatric, or cerebrovascular disease. Water Drinking Dennis et al found that in overweight and obese middle-aged and older adults on a hypocaloric diet, drinking water before each main meal aided weight loss.

Exercise Programs Before prescribing an intensive exercise program, clinicians should screen patients for cardiovascular and respiratory adequacy. Behavioral Changes Behavioral modification for weight loss addresses learned behaviors that contribute to excessive food intake, poor dietary choices or habits, and sedentary activity habits.

Antiobesity Medications Few medications are available for the treatment of obesity. Thyroid hormone - Hyperthyroidism, with its attendant sequelae. Phenylpropanolamine - Increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. Fat Substitutes One strategy to prevent obesity that is being explored in the dietary industry involves the use of fat substitutes.

Bariatric Surgery Surgical therapy for obesity bariatric surgery is the only available therapeutic modality associated with clinically significant and relatively sustained weight loss in subjects with morbid obesity associated with comorbidities.

Anastomotic leaks with a potential for mediastinitis or peritonitis. Blind-loop syndrome - Includes enteritis, arthropathy, and liver cirrhosis. As stated by Sacks, F. The DASH diet and the control diet at the lower salt levels were both successful in lowering blood pressure, but the largest reductions in blood pressure were obtained by eating a combination of these two i. The hypertensive subjects experienced an average reduction of From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources.

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Department of Agriculture and U. Department of Health and Human Services Retrieved December 15, Department of Health and Human Services. News Reveals Best Diets Rankings for ". The New England Journal of Medicine.

A meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies". Southern California Urology Institute. Retrieved 21 April From Clinical Trial to Dinner Table".

Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine. The Cleveland Clinic Foundation. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Human nutritions and healthy diets. Omnivore Entomophagy Pescetarian Plant-based. Bodybuilding supplements Meal replacement Therapeutic food.

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