Agriculture

Zinc as a nutrient for agricultural crops in southern Australia

Meal frequency and timing in health and disease
The type of foliar Zn fertiliser, ZnSO4 or zinc chelate, that was most effective for the wheat grown on sands was dependent on timing of application Brennan The management changes will be specific to the soil type, slope, and crops grown. Everything was crystal clear and my reaction time moved up a couple notches. Placental expulsion can be managed actively, for example by giving oxytocin via intramuscular injection followed by cord traction to assist in delivering the placenta. A metabolic and endocrine disorder. Have you heard of sluggish cognitive tempo? Journal of Lipid Research.

All You Need to Know About New Isagenix Coffee

Climate Change Indicators: Bird Wintering Ranges

Again, this is explained in detail in the L-Theanine review. One more thing about dosing: But always start with the lowest therapeutic dose to see how you react! I appreciate your compliments on Nootropics Expert. Dear David, great website and a wealth of good knowledge. I was wondering I have just started taking mind lab pro; which I have read a great deal about along with great reviews. I take ciprilex antidepressents for many years. I still feel very flat sometimes..

I eat healthy and walk a lot. Oliver, depending on the person, it may take anywhere from 1 — 3 weeks to experience the full effects provided by Mind Lab Pro. But this SSRI very much complicates correcting the motivation issues you mention. Cipralex prevents the reuptake of serotonin in your brain. And has an effect on at least one of the serotonin transporters. Meaning you have more serotonin available. Because the synthesis of both serotonin and dopamine depend on the same enzyme.

I think everyone should be supplementing with iodine and selenium to support thyroid health. Given your age and you are male, you may want to get a full testosterone panel done including estradiol. Also a full thyroid panel and learn how to read your own lab results. I know because it took me almost 5 years. But it was worth the journey. Nootropics saved my life and things are better now than ever for me.

So please continue your research and do not be afraid to cautiously experiment. Can you give me some peer-reviewed medical journal websites that you use to get some of your information? Do you use pubmed? Also, what are your thoughts about probiotic use? Good luck with your psychiatrist. The pharmaceuticals dictate what is taught to young doctors. And of course are only exposed to pharmaceuticals to treat disease.

Most doctors are much too busy or simply do not have any interest in thinking outside the box. But I do not want to go down the political, moral or ethical road with Nootropics Expert. I was reading through this website and wanted to try some supplements but not sure if it works well with the concerta. I live in Finland so getting mind lab pro is not possible so as to any of the racetam family.

Currently, i am taking zink 15mg , magnesium mg and omega 3 with very high epa ratio to dha. Zabe, you are on the right track with what you are currently doing with your stack. Look through the ingredients list in Mind Lab Pro for ideas on how to make your stack better. For example, get a nootropic supplement that increases cerebral blood flow. Something like Vinpocetine or Pine Bark Extract.

Add a high quality, bio-available B-Complex formula to your stack because you need the B-Vitamins to synthesize neurotransmitters. And you should also consider adding a tablespoon of high quality fat to your stack.

Preferably cold-pressed, unrefined coconut oil or olive oil. You need this fat to help deliver some of the fat-soluble nootropics you are using. Check the review on each here on Nootropics Expert to learn which are fat-soluble. Thank you a lot a David. I will definitely buy the DHA mg and the high quality fat Also high standards bit B and the other supplements you suggested.

I make my own capsule for several nootropics I use. As for racetams, what are you trying to achieve? The most popular racetams are Aniracetam, Piracetam, Oxiracetam, and Phenylpiracetam. But each have their own characteristics and benefit that each provides. He struggles with anxiety and mild depression as well as social anxiety.

I have him talking the Calm Now blend off Amazon as well as a raw organic multi B vitamin blend and ashwaganda. For my husband, he struggles with mild ADD — undiagnosed, but he has a short attention span and has headaches. Third is my friend — she was diagnosed with bipolar and ADD.

She takes pharmaceuticals, but would like to get away from them. For myself, I am 39, and I use to have a very sharp mind. From the extreme stress of the last 2 years fighting in court over my children and other things — my memory is now just awful. I most likely have some PTSD and extreme stress etc. I have tried a few Neuro blends. My short term memory is awful and I have trouble with recall of my long term memories also. I can focus alright. My main issue is memory. But it will take some trial and error and a lot of patience.

Because each of us is different. Including your son, husband, friend and you. But a strong word of caution. Each of the nootropic stacks suggested has links through to full reviews for each of those supplements. Some of these can be extremely dangerous. And you must heed the warnings. Because very bad things can happen. It took me several years before I finally found that sweet spot where I felt good again.

In fact, better than I have in a long, long time. But it took a lot of experimenting. David, Terrific website and information. Your insight and research are inspiring and appreciated. Have you checked out the post I wrote on nootropics and ADD? You may get some ideas on how to support what you are currently using. And get better results. If you would like, I will compile and type one for you. Where is that, please? Helen, nootropics literally saved my life not too long ago. Nootropics Expert is my way of giving back and hopefully help someone else turn their life around.

This site is a constant work in progress and I have some web-design geniuses working on a site update for early An index of some kind may be the answer. For now however, to search the hundreds of pages here on NootropicsExpert. Is that price justified? Altho I am complaining gingerly because my mood is definitely on the upswing. NTL, do you really think it would be more expensive to buy the ingredients separately? Helen, Mind Lab Pro is a day supply and not Unless of course you get the discounted 3-month supply.

From your experience, Should I take them at the same time or would they work better taken separately through out the day? Mike, those 4 nootropics all support each other so there is no harm in taking them together. And for all the nootropics you are going to try please follow the dosage recommendations closely for best results.

I really am grateful for the immense amount of effort that you gone to in organizing all of the information in one place. I have been studying it for a couple of weeks with great relish. I am a 71 year old man who has been interested in these areas of supplementation for the last 20 years. I have recently been looking for more information on pregnenolone without too much success and was wondering if you have explored this substance. I am also wondering if you have a recommend stack with spiritual clarity and focus as a goal?

I personally use progesterone on the advice of my doctor. But it may now go on my list. My story begins with a mercury toxicity test result of Ended up with acute pain and perscribed high dose opiates for a decade. Currently off Fentanyl 15 weeks, replaced by monthly buphronephrine injections, as part of a clinical trial. Is working wonders, no pain. However, the past 3 years my cognitive dysfunction has declined to the point of losing my business, my home, am in financial ruin.

That this will cure me of my cognitive issues! I KNOW being in acute pain again will not help at all. They will not perscribe Ritalin — a mental health care facility, what a joke!

Debbie, it is difficult for me to recommend any particular doctor who specializes in ADD. I was fortunate that once I was diagnosed 10 years ago and started on Ritalin I was able to switch docs as needed. Try subscribing to this mag and see if you can get someone to point you in the right direction: Without a doubt I know it was using Mind Lab Pro as my base and building from there I was able to pull that off.

I avoid antidepressants like the plague. They will absolutely make your situation worse. While I believe prescription antidepressants may have their place for a fortunate few, most will have better luck using the right nootropic supplements. Please get your thyroid levels checked out too. This area of healthcare needs to be managed by you because I have not yet met an endocrinologist who gets it. Spend some time reading https: Then find a naturopath or functional medicine doc who will work with to order the right labs.

But use the thyroid site to learn how to read the labs yourself. It sounds like you are on the right track. It took me 3 solid years of experimenting and healing before I was functional again. The first couple of chapters will encourage you to continue what you are doing. And the rest of the book will help you focus on each of the issues you are dealing with. Thank you so much for this invaluable site.

I started with nootropics a year ago with Neuro1 which I acquired a large volume of from a liquidator for next to nothing. My supply has run out, and rather than pay the price premium for that product, I decided to get serious about my nootropics and roll my own.

Prior to workouts, I also add the following: Most of this stuff was bulk powder rather than capsules, and to get it down I heat 1Tbs of extra virgin coconut oil in the microwave till it liquifies, then mix in the powder and down the shot.

I had planned to add R-ALA, but the batch I received had polymerized into a plasticy mess, and I opted not to put it into my body. Try using Vinpocetine 2 or 3-times per day. Increase DHA to 1, mg. Increase Vitamin D3 to a least 2, IU. NADH, zinc and copper are good idea. But use 2 mg of copper. And not sure why you would want to go with Unifiram. There are at least 6 other racetams with a lot more human clinical studies backing up their use.

BTW, I should also probably mention that I have a hypoactive thyroid and take mcg of levothyroxine every morning, in case that has any bearing on the matter. Has your experience been different?

My body will not convert synthetic T4 to T3 and the other bits my body can use. You must be one of the lucky ones where levothyroxine works for you.

You likely should be using iodine and selenium as well as they are required to synthesize your thyroid hormones. BTW, being hypo absolutely affects nearly everything in your body. Jalene, I do not have an opinion on Qualia yet. But will be doing a review of their stack sometime later this year. For the initial dosage I believe you said to mg per day.

Is that mg of l-dopa as a percentage from the Mucuna supplement? That is what we are basing our dosage on. Would cycling this lower amt of L-dopa be prudent? If yes what type of cycling protocol would you recommend? But if you are experiencing the benefit of L-DOPA at that dose … then to get the full experience I recommend using it for 5 days and taking 2 days off. HI David, I am enjoying your videos. Hope I am posting in the right spot.

I began taking Modnifil which really worked for me. I am a shift worker who frequently crosses over from nights to day visa versa. I added in arcalion Subutiamine and Hunasun Citcholine mg. I then decided to buy the mind lab pro stack pack. It arrived in Asia yesterday. Would you recommend I drop some or all of what I have been taking and just see where the mind lab pro stack takes me?

I am noticing great retruns in focus and drive so far. I had a near drowning a couple of years ago and yes some parts of the brain have slowed a little, that much is clear LOL. Any advice greatly apprecited. But each of us is wired differently. So your response may be different. Try it and see how you feel. Hello David, I just came across your video about L-Theanine. I am taking Xanax at. Should I watch out for anything funny?

I have problems with anxiety. It also increases dopamine. Combining the two could cause problems with excess GABA and dopamine. Whenever you start mixing pharmaceuticals with nootropics you are playing with fire.

But common sense tells us that too much of any one neurotransmitter throws everything out of balance. And at times, can be deadly. But if you do be extremely careful. And listen to your body. Hello David, Thank you again for all of your help. Do you think I might have done any damage, long term or otherwise…to myself by mixing the Xanax with L-Theanine, and how would i know?

Sorry about the other posts below, I see how you comment and reply system works now. Without your video…and this web-site, I might have continued on mixing the Xanax with L-Theanine, but will not do that again. All the best, John. John, short of getting a deep brain scan there is no way to tell if this combo caused any damage. The human brain has an amazing ability to repair itself.

But I think stressing about it will cause more damage than anything else. Any thoughts as to why Xanax is a bad mix with L-Theanine, I am guessing that it might slow down a persons breathing….

David, thank you — I missed your reply when I sent the second message. I did not fully understand what I was getting into. I also did not understand that they worked in a similar manner. How long do you think I should be off the xanax. John, the half-life of Xanax is around 11 hours.

The half-life of L-Theanine according to the following study ranged from 58 min to 74 min in humans. Below is a brief summary of my medicated world of mental health:. Which explained a lot of my academic struggles, feelings of self-worth, etc. She started out by prescribing me a Sustained Release generic version of Wellbutrin. I am both a teacher and a student… She had also prescribed some sort of non-addictive anti-anxiety medication which made me feel ill so I discontinued use within just a few days.

I try to eat healthfully, and I try to practice self-care as much as possible. That, and a new hormonal birth control, has really thrown my life off kilter. At first, Adderall helped with getting all my work done!

Staying focused, on-task, memory, etc. But more recently, I have experienced increased irritability and strong fits of anger… paired with a seemingly greater tolerance to Adderall?

It seems to last for a shorter time. I have been trying to track how these emotional reactions relate to the time of the month, but is increasingly difficult to track the timing of my mood swings. My partner has also noticed a change in my behavior. I try to take breaks from Adderall, but I find it quite difficult with an increased workload as of late.

Research into Nootropics, though, gives me hope that there is a better solution for my struggles. What would you recommend? I would like to taper off of prescription drugs, ideally. Perhaps come summer time, when I experience a true break, I will be able to relax more with a decreased work schedule…. Vitamin B-complex, L-theanine, L-tyrosine, Magnesium. Perhaps a cycled 5HTP?

Thank you in advance for your consideration. Michelle, sounds like Adderall is providing too much norepinephrine which is what could be the source of irritability. You may do better with IR Ritalin. But the few months I experimented with Adderall resulted in symptoms like you describe. So it was back to Ritalin. I seem to remember more than one nootropic supplement that could help tame PMS symptoms.

I have the latter. I titrated off the Mirapex because the dose was too high and I was on the verge of psychosis. I was unable to sleep or eat. However, at the least amount of dosage, I was finally able to fall asleep.

My neurologist wants to put me back on the lowest dosage again. Could you suggest a stack that might help? I also have Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Adult ADHD along with migraines with aura and occasional hemiplegic migraines, chronic long term back pain from a spondylolisthesis, and osteoarthritis throughout. I figure the more details I give, the better you might be able to analyze my situation. Dee, Mucuna Pruriens https: Keep an eye out specifically for dopamine antagonists.

I recall at least one or two nootropics for migraines. Robert, Galantamine is sold as a prescription drug in the United States and elsewhere.

Here on Nootropics Expert we stay primarily with natural substances that can be used for brain health. And some of the racetams that can easily and affordably found on nootropic vendors websites. So Galantamine will not likely be going on my list to review any time soon. Hello, I have just watched your video regarding lithium orotate. I have a 21 yr old with severe autism, hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorder, OCD, epilepsy with extremely challenging behaviour.

He currently takes mg twice a day carbamazepine, 10mg fluoxetine plus 60mg of propranolol daily. Would 5mg of lithium orotate daily be safe with these meds? Sharon, I highly recommend you learn as much as you can about each of the drugs you mention here.

Get a clear understanding of their mechanism of action especially in the brain. Then check each one for interactions here: Keep in mind that when lithium is mentioned on drugs. And used in very high doses. I cannot give you a definitive answer either way because the drugs being used here are extremely potent.

And mixing them with any nootropic supplement could be a recipe for disaster. So be very, very careful. Hi i have just received my first nootropic samples today which consisted of, 15caps aniracetam mg , 15caps oxiracetam mg , 15caps piracetam mg ,15caps noopept 30mg , 60caps alpha gpc mg and a bottle of phenibut hcl mg.

I took 1 aniracetam and 1 aplha gpc today and the feelings was absolutely unreal i felt the best i had in years im 26 years old although i felt a bit sleepy and possibly slight brain fog rather than enhanced cognition, my question is what is the best way to take these, should i stack them to get maximum benefits or take them all consecutively? Alan, we have detailed dosage instructions for every one of these nootropics. Scroll through the list here: And click through to each review.

Each review explains how the nootropic works in your brain. The amount to use and what to take with it to make sure it works. I also suggest you only use one racetam at a time until you learn how each works. And how your body responds to it. You likely felt sleepy because your dose of Alpha GPC was too low for the amount of Aniracetam you took. If you miss either of those it is unlikely you will experience much from using this nootropic. And it then feels like nothing is happening. Driving north early in the morning on I was amazing.

Everything was crystal clear and my reaction time moved up a couple notches. But when I miss using Aniracetam for 3 or 4 days in a row I know it. Would it be safe for me to start taking nootropics at this age? Somewhere on this site is research on brain development and age. But it would take some searching to find it. And if you did, be very careful about what you use. But most of the serious heavy lifting is from birth to late teens. So in your case and at your stage of develop just please be careful.

That includes stuff you can get off the interweb. The racetams should be OK as long as you follow dosage instructions very carefully. And no matter what you do support your brain with the basics. That with unrefined coconut or MCT Oil can give you an edge. Final word is use common sense. You can up your game without over-amping your brain.

Always do the fundamentals no matter what you try. And use adaptogens and anything that assists nerve growth factor and BDNF. Continual brain repair and listening to your body is key. David thank you so much for the quick reply! Charles, best way to get a better understanding of nootropics and different options for stacks is read some of the posts linked to from this page: Each post title is fairly descriptive of what the post is about.

And there is a short summary there as well. I also just ordered Mind lab pro! Also, would it be worthwhile to add ashwagandha to the stack? Mostly as another adaptogen and the reaction timing and calmness its known for?

And adding one regular dose of Mind Lab Pro will increase it to 1, mg total. Ashwagandha is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Which means it increases acetylcholine ACh. Adding it to your stack will push you over the top into nasty territory more than likely. With too much acetylcholine. Mind Lab Pro benefits kick in at different times for different people.

But may not notice a difference for awhile. The effects are powerful but subtle because it works on total brain optimization. And unless you are very in-tune with your body …. I would start with one dose of MLP and see how you feel. I personally use one dose of MLP in the morning and another at noon. But my brain is very Adult ADD. And needs the help. Piracetam may give you the noticeable difference you are looking for.

But please follow dosage instructions carefully. And take another look at the amount of Citicoline you are using. And carefully evaluate each one before adding any one of them to your stack. How much citicoline would you recommend then? Perhaps mg, or just stick to the dosage of mind lab pro? I remember reading one of your articles and it saying to keep a 1: Also how can I buy your book? Charles, try mg of Citicoline and Mind Lab Pro and see how you feel.

When you start with Piracetam you may need to increase your dose. See the side effects section for CDP-Choline so you know what to watch out for.

Too much acetylcholine usually feels like fatigue or getting sleepy. And judge how you feel the first day. However, looking for a bit of clarity here. I went with your recommendation of lowering the citicoline. When i started taking MLP i did so with only 1 mg cap. My initial thoughts on this were to see if it was something having to do with life circumstances on some of the days due to lack of sleep or a certain event that went on one day.

However, after 3 straight days of it I thought perhaps I was still using too much Citicoline based on the side effects in your article on CDP Choline. I then stopped taking the mg cap today and just took the MLP. What are your thoughts? I would say increase your choline intake and see how you feel. But if I did, it would likely only feel like fatigue.

But those headaches are particularly nasty. One capsule of Alpha GPC and the headache goes away. Everyone of our brains are unique in who know how many ways.

It is possible your brain just needs more choline. I hope this email reaches you well. I hope you can help me? At one party 6months ago, I took an Ecstacy pill drug which made me very very happy. At that moment, none of the above problems were visible. I felt like my old young self, with full confidence.

I researched and found out that Esctacy releases serotonin and that explains the amazing feeling. I have bought a 5 HTP supplement and each capsule has: Dee, you are on the right track.

Because increases one neurotransmitter will soon throw off the balance of other in your brain. Which is the reason why we need to be careful about balancing serotonin with dopamine. The real issue is you cannot make serotonin or dopamine without the assistance of certain vitamins and minerals. Your best option is find a high quality B-Vitamin supplement that uses all nature-identical ingredients.

In other words, folate rather than folic acid. And methylcobalamin rather than cyanocobalamin. And the doses of every vitamin you take needs to be high enough to provide a benefit.

Usually much higher than the government issued RDA. Each of these nootropics have full reviews here on Nootropics Expert. Including dosage recommendations, side effects and types to buy. Dosage recommendations must be followed for any of these including vitamins to work. Thank you for the reply. David, I have been trying to find a B-Vitamin supplement after reading your article, all natural and high dosage per serving.

I can really see how important B-Vitamins are now. And start experimenting with some adaptogens. Try them one at a time and see how you feel. Each has a link through to the full review with dosage instructions.

There is no natural substance that will give you the effect you got from Ecstasy. But as good as it felt, it is not sustainable. Your long-term solution is a stack of supplements. But it will take time and experimenting to find the right combination for you. Can you recommend a neurologist or doctor? I struggle with the feeling of having a cloud over my brain, a really bad case of brain fog as well as low blood pressure. I also tend to procrastinate a lot.

I was taking Ritalin and Red Bull, and that helped however I am aware of how unhealthy it is. And I can visually see the premature aging effect its had on me, it looks like I aged at least five years in the last two when I started taking Ritalin and Red Bull. We do not recommend specific neurologists or doctors here.

No one else can do this for you. Especially not a mainstream doctor. You must learn how to do it yourself using the information provided here on Nootropics Expert. What are your thoughts on dmg? Would consider a youtube video as well on the subject. Thanks for the amazing content. Is it fluvoxamine a nootropic? Felipe, Lithium Carbonate is prescribed for long-term treatment of bipolar disorder, is dosed at — mg and comes with a host of side effects.

Dosage is 5 mg. Hello, I have problem with focus, motivation, experiencing pleasure and mood, also some anxiety, as I think, I have low levels of dopamine, but the doctor prescribed me SSRI, as they always do, when they see symptoms of depression, without analyzing them. I bought some stack, that contains L-dopa, L-tyrosine, Acetyle-L-Carnitine and alpha-GPC, I want to add Rhodiola rosea and CDP-choline to this stack, would it be a good choice or all of these together can cause any problems and side effects?

George, sounds like you are on the right track if you think you have a dopamine issue. Unless the intention was to boost dopamine as much as you can. See how this stack works for you for a few days first. Also, see my post on depression here for more ideas: I thought as the dopamine levels will raise, it may cause dopamine receptors down regulation and I have heard, that CDP-choline increases dopamine receptors count, so to achieve maximum result, I want to add it to the stack, but also I thought that CDP-choline together with Alpha-GPC and acetyl-L-carnitine, could be too much.

Also I want to know, how long can I take such kind of nootropics, several weeks, months, or there is no limitation for them? I would be less concerned at this stage in down-regulating dopamine receptors and more concerned about depressing serotonin. Because both are involved in anxiety and mood. Be very careful with St.

Please read this review several times until you know exactly what to expect and watch out for: George, I take them every day and it works for me. But everyone is different. It all depends on your goal. Do you want consistent improvement in cognition? Or are you looking for some dramatic reaction you can feel? Hello again, David, one more question, when should I take supplements, for maximum absorption through blood brain barrier?

George, tyrosine is an amino acid and competes for transporters to your brain with other amino acids from your food. It has nothing to do with the blood-brain barrier directly. Fat-soluble supplements need a healthy fat like coconut oil for absorption and to be able to cross through cell walls.

I have multiple health issues: I have low levels of Dopamine, serotonin, and acetylcholine, possibly due to upregulations of the COMT enzyme. Last week, I tried mg Sulbutiamine for the first time. My fatigue, depression, brain fog, and low libido vanished! These results lasted only 2 days, however, and the last several days I have felt worse than ever.

Many factors can influence bird ranges, including food availability, habitat alteration, and interactions with other species. As a result, some of the birds included in this indicator might have moved north for reasons other than changing temperatures.

This indicator does not show how responses to climate change vary among different types of birds. For example, a more detailed National Audubon Society analysis found large differences among coastal birds, grassland birds, and birds adapted to feeders, which all have different abilities to adapt to temperature changes.

Recent and historical Christmas Bird Count data are available at: Poleward shifts in winter ranges of North American birds.

Northward shifts in the abundance of North American birds in early winter: A response to warmer winter temperatures? Printer-friendly PDF of all text and figures. Contact Us to ask a question, provide feedback, or report a problem. Jump to main content. An official website of the United States government. Change in Latitude of Bird Center of Abundance, — Trends in the center of abundance moving northward can be closely related to increasing winter temperatures.

A shift away from the coasts can also relate to changes in winter temperatures. Inland areas tend to experience more extreme cold than coastal areas, but those extremes are becoming less severe as the climate warms overall. A total of 48 species have moved northward by more than miles. Of the species studied, 61 percent have shifted their wintering grounds northward since the s, while 82 27 percent have shifted southward.

Some others have not moved at all. Background Changes in climate can affect ecosystems by influencing animal behavior and ranges. Birds are a particularly good indicator of environmental change for several reasons: Each species of bird has adapted or evolved to favor certain habitat types, food sources, and temperature ranges.

In addition, the timing of certain events in their life cycles—such as migration and reproduction—is driven by cues from the environment. For example, many North American birds follow a regular seasonal migration pattern, moving north to feed and breed in the summer, then moving south to spend the winter in warmer areas. Changing conditions can influence the distribution of both migratory and non-migratory birds as well as the timing of important life cycle events.

Regulatory Requirements