Solution: Get Informed Before You Demonstrate
Now think of how most people live: He urges listeners to get rid of three aspects of education: This survey finished in and obtained longitudinal data from the same group of people over seven years. Two of the most frequently used statistical significance tests are:. The ideology that underlay the model saturated academia, notably at the University of Chicago, and the mainstream media, principally at The New York Times. In June there were , New Zealanders seeking additional hours of work, actively seeking work but not available in the next week, or available but not actively seeking work.
Technology in the New Zealand Curriculum. Ministry of Education a. Ministry of Education c. Healthy People Eat Healthy Food: Hauora i roti te Marautanga o Aotearoa. Ministry of Education b. Pathways to the Future: Best Evidence Synthesis Report. Making a Bigger Difference for All Students: Medium Term Strategy, Ministry of Education.
The New Zealand Curriculum: Draft for Consultation Food and Nutrition Guidelines for Healthy Adolescents: Key Results of the National Nutritional Survey. National Heart Foundation Food Choices the IT Way. Xyris Software Australia Pty Ltd. Journal of the Home Economics Institute of Australia , vol. Social and Ethical Issues in Sexuality Education: Christchurch College of Education.
Agencies for Nutrition Action. The Ministry of Education would like to thank all those who contributed to the development of these guidelines, particularly the principal writer, Primrose Appleby. Thanks also to the early childhood education services and schools where the photographs in this book were taken:.
For giving us permission to quote or adapt their material, thanks to Gillian Tasker and Malcolm Riley. The photographs and food styling are by Adrian Heke and Nicola Edmonds except for the photograph at the lower right on page 5 which is from the Background and Objects image disc PhotoDisc series, volume 8.
Revised version online only published All text and photographs copyright c Crown , except for the quotation in Why a supportive food environment is important , which is copyright c Malcolm Riley, Enquiries should be made to the publisher.
Te Kete Ipurangi Navigation: Search all of TKI. Unpack the following points with students to co-construct success criteria: There are external factors that affect physical performance. Personal and collective action can bring about changes.
The students will use a range of interpersonal skills and processes that support appropriate choices. Personal Health and Physical Development: Personal Growth and Development. Students will ask questions about how food and beverage choices affect their health, growth, and development. The students identify how the choices they make about eating vegetables can influence their well-being and explain what affects their choices.
Does our class eat enough vegetables? Make a class collage of vegetables liked. Record vegetables eaten by the class in one day. Analyse results on a bar graph. Does the class on average eat at least three servings of vegetables a day?
Students will clearly express their own ideas, needs, wants, and feelings about the help needed to support their personal vegetable goal and listen to those of other people. Class brainstorm — how could they try to eat more vegetables or try new vegetables, and what support and help would be needed to do this?
The students describe the support they need and support others to reach their personal vegetable goal. Healthy Communities and Environments: Rights, Responsibilities, and Laws and People and the Environment. Students will take individual and collective action to contribute to an eating environment that encourages them to eat and enjoy vegetables. Students share vegetable preparation tasks and eat lunch in a supportive environment.
Students will explore how sharing attitudes, values, and actions when preparing food together contributes to an environment that promotes and supports healthy food and beverage choices. Reflect on the outcome s.
The students describe how working together and sharing through the context of food helps them to try and enjoy vegetables. Students will identify food-related factors that affect their well-being. Students analysed the survey results, finding that a number of students in their year 10 home economics class: Students will investigate and describe how choices about food can contribute to their own well-being and that of others.
Students will develop effective self-management strategies for making food choices. In groups, students discussed: Students identified changes that could be made and the skills needed to make changes. Students will investigate social influences on food choices.
Develop understanding, analyse the issue, and evaluate their ideas. In groups, students identified and discussed: Enablers to help overcome the barriers In class, exploring alternatives for better choices Resources showing fat content and links between diseases and diet Supporting each other to make changes.
When making changes in food choices, students could identify: Students will investigate and evaluate their own responsibilities for choosing healthier food, including eating breakfast regularly, and ways in which the school community can support them to meet their goals.
They developed their plan of action by: As a class, they put the plan into action, setting goals to: Personal Identity and Self-worth. Students will investigate and describe ways in which individuals define how their personal sense of self-worth was influenced by working towards goals to improve their food choices. Students gathered feedback and found that most students in the class were: Teachers reflected on improved behaviour in classes. Student reflections acknowledged the positive outcomes of choosing a lifestyle that supports healthy eating.
Health promotion techniques used in this plan included the: Students will investigate and evaluate aspects of school and home environments that could affect physical performance.
They analysed the results using Food Choices the IT Way the team identified, both individually and collectively, possible problem areas and improvements that could be made. Students will investigate community services that support and promote performance.
The students could extrapolate information from appropriate resources and use this to develop possible solutions. Analyse the issue and their ideas. Possible barriers to making changes Players like and enjoy the high-sugar foods, and these are easy to access.
The after-match food provided includes high-sugar items. They lack time to prepare healthy foods. Enablers to help overcome the barriers Making a commitment to support each other to make changes, based on such knowledge as: Community Resources and Relationships with Other People: Students will take action to enhance personal and group involvement in improving the food environment.
Players looked at their own lifestyle surveys in pairs and, using the information in the SportSmart resource, noted where individual improvements needed to be made. In pairs, they worked out how this could be managed and how to overcome any barriers. Each team member made a personal commitment to change at least one food or beverage they consumed to help improve their performance.
A small group worked out a team plan for suitable beverages before, during, and after games. They looked at the nutrition labelling on sports beverages and identified some that met the ACC guidelines. They asked the company supplying free beverages containing caffeine to cease doing so or to provide suitable alternatives that met the ACC guidelines.
The whole group brainstormed some templates to put on their cellphones to remind each other to keep to their personal commitments. Students took action to bring about personal improvements in their food and beverage choices. Collective action was taken to bring about wider changes. A range of interpersonal strategies was used appropriately to support change. Students will describe how personal and collective action to improve food choices influences a sense of self-worth.
After following the new food and beverage regime for a month, the team met after practice to identify: Students reflected on how their performance improved in relation to the commitment to making changes to what they ate and related this to their own sense of self-worth. A Book About Autistic People.
Riedl, Rupert , Die Spaltung des Weltbildes. Rimland, Bernard , Foreword in: Oerter Rolf und Leo Montada, Hrsg. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia 8, Durham National Autistic Society. Sally und Georg Deutsch , Linkes, rechtes Gehirn. Gillberg , The etiology of autism. Autism Diagnosis and Treatment. Warnke, Fred , Der Takt des Gehirns. Wie Sie Informationen schneller verarbeiten. Visual thinkers, gifted people with dyslexia and other learning difficulties, computer images and the ironies of creativity.
Journal of Psychological Medicine 11, Journal of Autism and Develomental Disorders 11, Mesibov eds , Diagnosis and Assessment in Autism. Wright, Ann , Specific learning difficulties. The development of Irlen technology. Optometry Today, Sep 8, Williams, Donna , Nobody Nowhere. Williams, Donna a , Somebody Somewhere. Breaking Free from the World of Autism. Williams, Donna b , Like Colour to the Blind.
Soul Searching and Soul Finding. Box , Howick, Auckland Tel: For example, the National Animal Germplasm Program http: Various iterations of specimen banking for retrospective analyses occur globally for a multitude of investigations, including environmental monitoring, genetics research, and systematics. Fish tissue liver and muscle has been collected for the long-term storage of a variety of environmental specimens by the National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST, http: The choice of a sampling method should be dictated by worker safety, research objectives, seasonal considerations, and the habitat type to be sampled.
Capture techniques should prevent or minimize injury and stress see section 4. Live wells or tanks should be provided if fishes are to be kept for more than the time needed to collect essential metrics. Care should be taken to avoid accidental capture of nontarget species and to ensure release of incidentally collected individuals with minimal or no injury ASIH et al. Species that may be dangerous to workers due to size or species-characteristic behavior or capabilities require additional precautions see sections 5.
Several studies have shown electrofishing to be among the most effective techniques for obtaining fish assemblage data in freshwater habitats Yoder and Smith Electrofishing can be performed by wading methods or boat-mounted methods.
Appropriate electrofishing protocols should consider the sampling purpose and physical constraints of the environment e. Alternative sampling methods, such as seining, gill or trammel nets, trawls, cast nets, lift or push nets, rigid traps e.
The sampling methods chosen should allow for efficient capture of the species and sizes of fish needed to address research objectives while minimizing injury and mortality of collected fishes and non-target organisms. Multiple sampling gears may be required for the collection of a broad range of fish sizes or species or if diverse habitats are covered. Passive capture methods, such as set nets and traps, should be checked frequently enough to prevent unnecessary mortality of both target and non-target species.
Prolonged restraint that causes physiological stress should be avoided. In some cases, use of a sedative or anesthetic agent to minimize stress may be advisable. Depending on the chemical agent and its mode of action in fish, one or more of these terms may apply. However, use of MS in the field is limited because of an FDA requirement that food fish, including feral fishes that may be caught and eaten by humans, must go through a day withdrawal period prior to release or slaughter for human consumption Anderson et al.
When handling the dry form of the chemical, personal protective equipment such as a respiratory mask and gloves should be used. See Coyle et al. Unlike many therapeutic drugs, these sedatives cannot be prescribed for extra-label uses i. More specifically, if an appropriate grade of CO 2 is used, good management practices are followed, and local environmental requirements are met, the FDA has determined that regulatory action against the use of CO 2 as a fish sedative is unlikely.
Currently, the eugenol-based product can be used as an immediate-release sedative for field applications where it is likely that fish will be sedated just once in their lifetime.
All other applications require a 3-day withdrawal period. With the use of any sedative, a small number of fish should be tested to determine a suitable dose within the allowable ranges and to ensure that the species will return to normal physiological and behavioral status within an acceptable recovery time. The animals must be kept under observation until appropriate recovery occurs see section 4.
Used sedatives must undergo disposal in accordance with local, state, tribal, provincial, and federal regulations see also 5. Species considered dangerous to humans are most often encountered under field conditions, yet the guidelines are similar for laboratory situations. Dangerous species should be handled in a manner that is safe for both the investigator and the animal being handled.
Investigators should be cognizant of safety regulations for their institution regarding the use of dangerous or venomous animals. Those regulations may include SOPs that limit access for only authorized personnel, specify use of protective clothing or handling devices, and dictate treatment of individuals injured by the animals, including first aid and procedures for obtaining follow-up medical care.
Special handling methods will depend upon the species being handled, the nature of the danger to the investigator, and the nature of the research effort. Overall, consulting the relevant literature and colleagues experienced with the species is of primary importance. For general as well as specific information, with special reference to the marine environment, several books are available that are primarily written as cautionary first aid guides for scuba divers, free divers, and snorkelers who frequently come into contact with marine animals Halstead ; Cunningham and Goetz ; Auerback , as is information on the Divers Alert Network DAN Web site www.
Fishes will exhibit some degree of stress response when handled and transported. Methods of handling fishes vary with the species, the environment in which they are found, and the tradition and resources of a particular region or country Avault Stress responses can be reduced, however, by eliminating rough handling, rapid temperature changes, sudden water quality changes, abrasion, and excessively tight confinement.
Inappropriate handling and transport procedures can contribute to changes in blood profiles Ellsaesser and Clem and substantial mortalities Weirich ; Carmichael et al. Handling and transport procedures must be designed to minimize the effects of stress and thereby reduce immediate and delayed losses see section 4.
Some physiological changes that occur in response to handling and transport stressors are measurable and can be monitored.
These changes include increased cardiac output, increased gill vascularity, and release of catecholamines and corticosteroid hormones Carmichael et al. Handling of fishes in the field or in the laboratory is frequently characterized by increased susceptibility to disease thought to be mediated by immunologic suppression Wedemeyer Lymphopenia, neutrophilia, and lymphocyte nonresponsiveness have been noted as results of handling and transport stress Ellsaesser and Clem Clinical hematological values are available for some species Stoskopf b.
Depending on the severity of the stressors and exposure time, mortality can result from osmoregulatory dysfunction and immunosuppression. To mitigate stress associated with handling and transport, the investigator can reduce the number and severity of the stressors, minimize the duration of stressors, and minimize increases in metabolic rate. Harvesting techniques and preshipment treatment are important to the successful shipping of live fish Dupree and Huner Preconditioning treatments can involve the addition of sedatives to reduce metabolic rate, or salt or calcium to the transport water to prevent or reduce osmoregulatory dysfunction and resulting ionic imbalances Carmichael et al.
Feed should be withheld for 1 or 2 days prior to transport Weirich Generally, transports are less damaging to animals if done in cool weather. Proper equipment for transport should be used. Transport tanks should be well constructed and should be disinfected before use Avault The weight of fish that can be transported safely in a live-hauling vehicle depends on efficiency of the aeration system, duration of the haul, water temperature, fish size, and fish species Avault Maintaining acceptable ranges of dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, temperature, ammonia, and pH during transport is essential.
Fishes can be transferred between capture and transport units, or between transport units and holding units, by wet or dry transfer methods. Wet transfer involves transport of fishes in a container of water and minimizes direct contact with nets. Wet transfer usually results in less stress than dry transfer, where the net is used alone. Ideally, fishes should be allowed to recover in the same or similar medium used for transport Carmichael et al.
The length of time for recovery may vary depending upon conditions, the amount of handling, and research objectives, but 72 hours typically is considered a minimum following extensive handling see section 5. Because the biological needs of each aquatic species and the nature of individual projects vary, only the most general recommendations are provided on temporary holding and maintenance. Testing and comparing several methods of housing may be necessary in order to find the most appropriate for the needs of the species and the purpose s of the study.
Ease of maintenance by animal keepers, though important, should not be the prime determinants of housing conditions; however, such ease generally ensures greater compliance with established maintenance protocols ASIH et al. Normal field maintenance facilities should incorporate those aspects of the natural habitat deemed important to the survival and well-being of the animal.
Adequacy of the maintenance facility can be monitored by observing changes in animal growth and weight, survival rates, activity levels, general behavior, and appearance Snieszko Nutritionally balanced diets should be provided, or natural foods should be duplicated as closely as possible. Natural light and temperature conditions should be followed unless alteration of these factors is under investigation for achieving a desired effect e.
Fish species have optimal thermal regimes Sylvester , and the immune system functions best within such ranges Bly and Clem Diseases occur during temperature windows as well, such as Edwardsiella ictaluri in Channel Catfish Hawke Frequency of tank cleaning should represent a compromise between the level of cleanliness necessary to prevent disease and the amount of stress imposed by frequent handling ASIH et al.
For culture, bait, or sportfish species, fishes are generally held in vats or tanks before shipment. This holding enables the producer to grade fish according to size and to administer drug therapies if necessary. Holding also acclimates the fish for handling and transport Huner et al. When Channel Catfish are harvested from a pond, live cars or fish holding bags are used in the industry Huner et al.
These methods generally are applicable to all pond-reared species. In pond holding situations, fishes might be moved to deeper water in which cases the use of recirculating pumps or aerators can be beneficial. As with other containment systems, the holding tank needs to allow for the stocking density or the relation of fish biomass to available water volume. Water inflow and turnover rate must be considered because sufficient water exchanges are needed for good water quality.
Oxygen available in the incoming water needs to exceed the metabolic oxygen consumption by fishes in the tank Casebolt et al. Sufficient aeration can be supplied by compressed air, injected or bottled oxygen, or agitation.
Sedatives can also be used to reduce the physical activities of fishes, if consistent with research objectives. Excess noise and vibrations should be avoided because such factors can produce acute or chronic stress response in fish Stoskopf see section 7.
If extreme weather and environmental events occur, emergency preparedness measures may be necessary for future short-term maintenance of research animals. For instance, excess feed storage, alternative water supplies, and back-up generators may need to be in place. Because numerous physiological processes can be altered upon handling and transferring fishes, acclimating or conditioning fish to their new environment lessens potential negative effects.
If the physical and chemical qualities of the water supply for the temporary holding facility see section 5.
For example, fish in floating plastic bags with an atmosphere of oxygen above the water may be used to allow the captured fish to acclimate to the new water temperature. If differences are more substantial, gradually replacing the water in transport units with source water from the holding unit is a common practice that provides adequate time for fish acclimation. Useful notes on how to transport and acclimate live warmwater fishes are summarized in the Southern Regional Aquaculture Center Transportation of Warmwater Fish factsheets Loading Rates and Tips by Species Jensen a, https: Results obtained from careful collection and examination of blood and other tissues are often critically important to research on fishes Blaxhall ; Fange Sterile conditions for these procedures are often impossible to provide under field conditions, and care must be exercised to prevent injuries and stresses to the animals.
Samples of blood and body fluids can be obtained from fishes without compromising their survival, even from small specimens under grams Stoskopf a. Plastic syringes containing a small amount of anticoagulant such as sodium- or ammonium heparin or sodium citrate are suggested to prevent blood clotting. Study objectives will determine the proper selection of type, volume, and concentration of anticoagulant, if needed.
Three main techniques have been devised for collecting blood from fishes: The tail is the preferred site for blood sampling. The vessels running beneath the vertebrae of the fish can be sampled by using a lateral or ventral approach. Cardiac punctures from the ventral side are sometimes used in fusiform fishes or through the operculum in laterally compressed species. For repeated sampling, cannulae may be implanted in the dorsal aorta through the buccal cavity.
Blood from the caudal vessels may be collected directly into collection tubes by cutting off the tails of sedated fish that will be euthanized following the procedure.
However, extraneous fluids and proteins that may influence cell quality often co-occur with this procedure. Caution must be exercised to ensure that the method of sedation will not interfere with subsequent analyses. Additional information on sampling methods for the collection of blood from fishes has been described by Klontz and Smith , Smith et al.
Additional tissues that are useful for collection include otoliths, gills, kidney, thyroid, spleen, testes, ovaries, liver, heart, brain, and muscle. Collection of internal tissues typically requires sacrifice of the subject animals and must be preceded by appropriate anesthesia or euthanasia see section 8. These tissues can also be used for such purposes as contaminants analyses see section 5.
Tissues may be used fresh or frozen, or placed in a fixation or preserving medium such as buffered formalin, ethanol, or methanol and then histologically processed Luna ; Presnell et al. The purposes of some studies may be served by collections of scales, spines, or small pieces of fin, which can be accomplished with minimal effects on live fish and may be considered non-invasive sampling. This is important when working with imperiled species and small populations see section 5.
When transporting live tissues, the medium must have appropriate ionic and osmotic concentrations and may contain a sugar as an energy source. Noncytotoxic antibiotics or antimycotic agents may be included to prevent the growth of bacterial and fungal organisms Jenkins a; Jenkins et al.
Certain cell and nucleic acid stabilizers can make sampling of fish possible from remote locations for later tissue analysis in the laboratory Olivier and Jenkins, in press. Tagged and marked animals have been studied to obtain information on their behavior, population dynamics, and ecology, all of which are essential for developing conservation and management strategies.
Investigators can use both intrinsic and extrinsic identification systems, allowing the nature of the study to dictate the type of tag or mark employed.
Integrated use of more than one tagging or marking technique helps ensure fish identification and is helpful in estimating tag loss rates. Basic considerations for selecting a particular type of tag or mark in the context of the study objectives include potential effects on animal survival, behavior, and growth; tag permanency and recognition; number and size of the animals; stress of capture, handling, and marking; total costs; recovery of the marked fishes; and any required coordination among agencies, states, provinces, or countries Pine et al.
Investigators should also determine if the animal will be at greater than normal risk to predation, if its desirability as a mate will be reduced, and if a risk of infection is increased substantially, as well as other potential impacts ASIH et al.
Because techniques for tagging and marking fishes have been extensively reviewed and are constantly evolving, literature reviews should inform the researcher McFarlane et al.
The effects of marking on fishes depend on the physical condition of the fish at the time of release. Occurrence of injury is species and size specific, and smaller fishes may be more susceptible. Minor wounds caused by most tagging and marking procedures typically heal satisfactorily without treatment with antibiotics. All sedatives or antibiotics administered must be used in a manner consistent with regulatory requirements.
The use of external tags and marks has evolved over a long period of time McFarlane et al. Both natural marks and artificial tags or marks are in common use in fisheries research, and each type offers different capabilities, as well as limitations. Natural, external marks include meristic characteristics, pigmentation, morphometric measures, and scale characteristics, but natural marks are subject to environmental and genetic influences.
Fish scale shape and size, as well as circulus spacing, are frequently used. The effective use of natural marks requires being well informed on fish life history. Multiple methods are available for generating artificial external marks on fishes. Alteration of fins or other body parts, in practice for over years, can be accomplished by clipping or hole punching.
The selection of fins for clipping or removal is dependent upon the species under study; for example, clipping the anal fin of poeciliid males would be inappropriate because it functions as a copulatory organ, yet removal of the adipose fin of a salmonid would have negligible impacts ASIH et al.
Hot or cold branding, the process of marking by placing an apparatus e. Fishes should be anesthetized prior to branding. External colorants for marking fishes include dyes, stains, inks, paints, liquid latex, visible implant elastomers, and plastics that are administered by immersion, spraying, injection, or tattooing. Care is needed for distinguishing external colorant marks of similar tones Curtis External tags are conspicuous by their color, shape, size, or location of attachment and are composed of various materials.
Designed for hydroturbine passage survival studies, an external transmitter that is molded to the fish has shown utility Deng et al. External tags commonly applied to fishes include dart nd t-bar anchor tags, disc tags, Carlin tags, and spaghetti or loop tags Guy et al. Dart and anchor tags are the most frequently used external tags Nielsen , but a high loss rate has been reported in some species Guy et al. Proper insertion technique and use of small tags relative to fish size can reduce the potential for fish injury and tag loss Guy et al.
Implanted coded wire tags, radio and acoustic telemetry transmitters, archival biologgers, passive integrated transponder PIT tags, visible implanted alpha numeric tags, otolith marks, and natural parasites are internal marking systems used to identify fish Prentice et al.
The use of a coded wire tag identification system has been tested for management and research applications with multiple genera of fishes Buckley and Blankenship including juvenile salmonids Liedtke et al. The coded wire tag is normally injected into cartilage, connective tissue, or muscle and is detected electronically later with a handheld device. Each PIT tag carries a unique code that is relayed to a handheld or stationary reading device when the tag is within range.
Advantages of PIT tags include a long lifespan and generally a high retention rate Freeland ; Guy et al. The PIT tag data can be read through soft and hard fish tissue; in seawater and freshwater; through glass, plastic, and metal containers; and when fishes are moving at some velocity. Above certain fish size thresholds Tatara , they have little or no effect on fish growth, survival, or behavior Prentice et al.
Various tags and methods are available for the PIT tagging procedures; information can be found at state websites e. Visible implanted tags are alphanumerically coded and made of polyester film. They are inserted subcutaneously into transparent tissue so that they remain externally visible Haw et al.
Common tagging locations include transparent tissues posterior to the eye, in the lower jaw, or in fin membranes. Tag retention varies by species, tag location within the body, and fish size; very small fishes may have insufficient transparent tissue to accommodate the size of the tag Griffiths Manipulating environmental temperature, feeding rates, photoperiod, external chemical baths, or labeled feeds can induce specific marks in fish otoliths.
Fishes being propagated under controlled conditions are ideal for such manipulations. Otolith microstructural features and induced marks are permanent and can be viewed and analyzed in fish of any age.
Tetracycline and other fluorescent compounds e. Fish size, compound dosage and uptake method, and water chemistry can influence marking success with fluorescent compounds Beckman et al.
Marking success is highest during times when fish growth is rapid Conover and Sheehan Otoliths and other calcified structures can also be marked with alkaline earth and rare earth elements Behrens Yamada and Mulligan or isotopically labeled compounds Munro et al.
Fisheries that require stock definitions and assessment of stocking success or dispersal of early life stages are well suited to otolith-marking techniques.
Several taxonomic groups of fish parasites have been used as biological tags, and this method is best suited to the separation of relatively self-contained stocks of fishes MacKenzie Recovery of internal parasites used as biological tags is enhanced if parasites are associated with a specific anatomical site on the fish.
The decision to use a parasite as a natural mark on fish is determined by calculating the ratio of incidence of that parasite in one fish population to its incidence in another Wydoski and Emery Underwater biotelemetry involves attaching a device that relays biological information via ultrasonic or radio signals from a fish to a remote receiving system Cooke et al.
Radio transmission is practical only in freshwater at relatively shallow depths ASIH et al. The selection of a tag or transmitter and the method and site of attachment or implantation is to be appropriate for the species and size of fish and performed by trained personnel. Surgical implantation of transmitters into the coelom is common with free-ranging fishes.
Use of the smallest and lightest transmitter that provides the desired signal type, strength, and battery lifespan will minimize tag loss and potential effects of transmitter attachment on fish survival, growth, and behavior. External, neutrally buoyant transmitters have been developed for turbine-passage studies with juvenile salmonids at hydroelectric facilities Deng et al.
With fish exposed to rapid pressure changes, external transmitters may decrease the likelihood of injury or death compared to surgically implanted transmitters Brown et al. Techniques to minimize skin irritation should be used following attachment of external transmitters Crook see section 7. The development of techniques employing markers based on chromosome and nuclear DNA polymorphisms has been rapid and continues to evolve. Benefits have emerged for using DNA marks in selective breeding programs, in evaluating the contribution and effects of stocked species, and in delineating specific habitat requirements for hatchery-produced fish Purdom For managing natural populations, knowing whether the fish species exists as a single genetic unit or relatively genetically distinct groups is critical Beaumont and Hoare An additional incentive for the use of genetic tagging is that adequate tissue samples can be obtained nonlethally e.
Genetic tags are permanent and exist in all individuals, thus representing a good alternative to traditional tags. Prior to the development of DNA techniques for differentiating fish populations, investigators studied allozymes—variant enzyme forms that are coded by different alleles at the same locus or DNA sequence.
This type of genetic analysis sometimes required sacrificing fish to obtain appropriate samples, and with karyotype analysis, the examination of dividing cells was required. Small laboratory fishes such as Japanese Medaka and Zebrafish were used extensively as models for studies in vertebrate developmental genetics and for transgenic investigations Ozato and Wakamatsu Next-generation sequencing technologies rapidly obtain short DNA sequences at thousands of loci, providing a depth of potential for gathering genomic information Mardis Fisheries scientists dealing with such questions will need to update their knowledge of the appropriate, scientifically accepted genetic identification systems for their potential applications Lincoln ; Poompuang and Hallerman Stable isotopes are nonradioactive, naturally occurring forms of chemical elements that do not decay spontaneously and are generally energetically stable.
Stable isotopes of a particular chemical element differ in mass but otherwise have equivalent chemical properties. In contrast to radioisotopes, which are tightly regulated, the use of stable isotopes does not require specially approved facilities and permits. Isotope fractionation has been studied for many years in natural systems, and stable isotope ratios are now used with relative frequency for fish marking. Stable isotopes can inform studies on trophic food-web structures, feed efficiencies, fish migration and places of origin, contaminant bioaccumulation, and other physiological and ecological processes.
A variety of elements e. For obtaining fish tissues, sedation may be required see section 7. Sedatives and Related Chemicals or sacrificing may be necessary. Depending upon the objectives of the research, nonlethal sampling may be possible by using scales, sectioned fin rays or spines, fin clips, or muscle tissue samples obtained with a small biopsy punch for stable isotope analyses. Sampling of otoliths as metabolically inert structures is also common.
Different types of metabolically active tissues have different elemental turnover rates; therefore, each investigator must determine which tissues may provide materials needed to satisfy the requirements of the studies. Representative information on the use of stable isotopes in animal ecology has been provided by Fry and Rubenstein and Hobson In a manner similar to stable isotopes, fatty acids can be used as biomarkers to identify nutrient pathways in food webs, predator-prey relationships, and the relative contributions of allochthonous remote versus autothonous local inputs.
The use of fatty acids as biomarkers is based on the principle that fishes and many other aquatic organisms are composed of what they have eaten.
Once consumed, fatty acids may be catabolized for energy or biotransformed, so the fatty acid profiles within tissues tend to reflect the dietary fatty acid profile. Some fatty acids cannot be synthesized by vertebrates i. As mentioned for stable isotopes, various tissues have different metabolic turnover rates; thus, to be accurate, efforts linking tissue fatty acid profiles with chronological records of feeding behavior involve validation studies to account for establishing rates of profile change.
For example, phospholipid profiles tend to include certain saturated fatty acids e. Traditionally, muscle and liver tissues have been used for analyses, and sacrificing the animal has been necessary. However, adipose fin clips have shown utility for such analyses M.
For more information on the role of fatty acids in aquatic ecosystems and the use of fatty acids as biomarkers, see Arts et al. Working with live fishes under laboratory conditions requires attention to many details concerning the requirements for, and limits of tolerance of, the particular species under study.
Acceptable physical facilities and an adequate supply of water with good quality must be provided, even if the fishes are to be held for only short periods of time. Although fish may tolerate marginal facilities and conditions for a few hours or even several days, holding them under less than optimal conditions will affect the results of the research.
Standards for humane treatment of animals must also be maintained, regardless of the length of time that the fishes are held. The reader should note that some content of section 7 is not restricted to laboratory activities, but may be applicable to field situations, as well.
Prior to bringing fishes into a laboratory, facilities and plans should be in place to ensure that the fish cannot escape, especially species not native to the watershed, and that the introduced fishes can be isolated physically from fishes already present.
Each holding unit should have its own set of nets and other equipment. If the introduced fishes may carry disease agents, especially pathogens or parasites that are not endemic to the area, quarantine-level facilities should be used. The level of quarantine required will vary with the seriousness of the known or suspected disease agent see section 2.
Control of Pathogens and Parasites. Individual fish with suspected ill health should be quarantined from the others so as to negate the potential for spread of potential disease agents. Such fish should be evaluated by an individual with expertise in fish diseases fish pathologist or veterinarian , and the proper therapeutant should be applied as directed.
Providing guidance for the treatment of specific diseases is beyond the scope of this document. The investigator is strongly urged to establish a working relationship with individuals with expertise in fish health with whom they may consult. Experimentation with nonindigenous fishes, transgenic fishes, or other genetically modified fishes is a special situation that requires additional precautions to preclude their escape. Permitting with site visits by state wildlife agencies may be required for holding nonindigenous species see section 3.
The specific barriers may be similar to those used to prevent the escape of disease agents but must be developed to fit the physical characteristics of the laboratory or experimental facility.
The USDA has developed specifications for its own facilities and published voluntary guidelines USDA a, b intended to ensure appropriate consideration of the potential genetic and ecological effects of research activities.
These USDA guidelines a, b assist in determining appropriate procedures and safeguards so that research can be conducted without causing potentially adverse effects on the environment. Suggestions are provided for developing facility inspection guidelines and risk management procedures, appropriate locations, construction of containment structures, and nonstructural containment strategies.
Institutional guidelines for working with transgenic or other genetically modified animals must be variable enough to adapt to site-specific and study-specific goals but should be sufficient to ensure that accidental release cannot occur during floods or other natural disasters or during equipment failures.
Ultimately, individual scientists are responsible for ensuring the containment of animals. Effluents from units used to hold newly introduced fishes should be treated.