Although further research is needed, the results are worrying. The time you spend holding your baby, talking softly to her, and singing with her helps her build a secure attachment , and strengthens the parts of her brain that form relationships. Please try again later. Half of the pregnant mothers received a normal diet while the other half was fed a diet high in compounds that can result in modified DNA through epigenetic mechanisms. Get fast, free shipping with Amazon Prime. Doing sign language with your baby or child may help them develop better motor skills, a PBS report states.
Brain Development During Pregnancy
Each interaction a caregiver has with a child is important for fostering childhood learning. The following are four different types of learning experienced in childhood:. The ability to move and walk encompasses motor skills directly. Gymnastics and tumbling classes, drawing, learning to tie shoes and using scissors.
Therefore, it takes awhile in the development of a child for visual capabilities to begin to appear. Learning colors and shapes, sorting and folding laundry and looking at pictures are main elements of visual child development. Attributes such as hope, will, competence and others make up the list, among others. Doing sign language with your baby or child may help them develop better motor skills, a PBS report states. Another technique, fingerspelling, is also being used.
Reading is an acquired skill that requires a planned sequence of skill development. Singing songs and rhymes, reading books and encouraging storytelling exercises, no matter how simple.
These schemes increase in sophistication as a child develops. She can be reached via email. Kids, Social Media Use, and Cyberbullying: Observational Learning Read More. Your email address will not be published. Every experience and interaction has an impact on development in early childhood. Swiss biologist and… Read More. Definition Behaviorism is a learning theory that only focuses on objectively observable behaviors and discounts… Read More.
The next period is that of fetal development where many organs become fully developed. This fetal period is described both topically by organ and chronologically by time with major occurrences being listed by gestational age. In other animals the very early stages of embryogenesis are the same as those in humans. In later stages, development across all taxa of animals and the length of gestation vary.
Different terms are used to describe prenatal development , meaning development before birth. The perinatal period from Greek peri , "about, around" and Latin nasci "to be born" is "around the time of birth ". In developed countries and at facilities where expert neonatal care is available, it is considered from 22 completed weeks usually about days of gestation the time when birth weight is normally g to 7 completed days after birth.
When semen is released into the vagina , the spermatozoa travel through the cervix and body of the uterus and into the Fallopian tubes. Fertilization of the egg cell ovum , usually takes place in one of the Fallopian tubes. Many sperm are released with the possibility of just one sperm cell managing to adhere to and enter the thick protective shell-like layer surrounding the ovum. The first sperm that penetrates fully into the egg donates its genetic material DNA. The egg then polarizes, repelling any additional sperm.
The resulting combination is called a zygote , a new and genetically unique organism. The term "conception" refers variably to either fertilization or to formation of the conceptus after its implantation in the uterus, and this terminology is controversial. Prior to fertilization, each ovum, as a gamete , contains half of the genetic material that will fuse with the male gamete, which carries the other half of the genetic material DNA.
The ovum only carries the X female sex chromosome whilst the sperm carries a single sex chromosome of either an X or a male Y chromosome. The resulting human zygote is similar to the majority of somatic cells because it contains two copies of the genome in a diploid set of chromosomes. One set of chromosomes came from the nucleus of the ovum and the second set from the nucleus of the sperm. The zygote is male if the egg is fertilized by a sperm that carries a Y chromosome, and it is female if the egg is fertilized by a sperm that carries an X chromosome.
In contrast, the mitochondrial genetic information of the zygote comes entirely from the mother via the ovum. The embryonic period in humans begins at fertilization penetration of the egg by the sperm and continues until the end of the 10th week of gestation 8th week by embryonic age.
The period of two weeks from fertilization is also referred to as the germinal stage. The embryo spends the next few days traveling down the Fallopian tube. It starts out as a single cell zygote and then divides several times to form a ball of cells called a morula. Further cellular division is accompanied by the formation of a small cavity between the cells. This stage is called a blastocyst. Up to this point there is no growth in the overall size of the embryo, as it is confined within a glycoprotein shell, known as the zona pellucida.
Instead, each division produces successively smaller cells. The blastocyst reaches the uterus at roughly the fifth day after fertilization. It is here that lysis of the zona pellucida occurs. This process is analogous to zona hatching , a term that refers to the emergence of the blastocyst from the zona pellucida, when incubated in vitro.
This allows the trophectoderm cells of the blastocyst to come into contact with, and adhere to, the endometrial cells of the uterus. The trophectoderm will eventually give rise to extra-embryonic structures, such as the placenta and the membranes. The embryo becomes embedded in the endometrium in a process called implantation. In most successful pregnancies, the embryo implants 8 to 10 days after ovulation. Rapid growth occurs and the embryo's main features begin to take form.
This process is called differentiation , which produces the varied cell types such as blood cells, kidney cells, and nerve cells. A spontaneous abortion, or miscarriage , in the first trimester of pregnancy is usually  due to major genetic mistakes or abnormalities in the developing embryo.
During this critical period most of the first trimester , the developing embryo is also susceptible to toxic exposures, such as:. From the 10th week of gestation 8th week of development , the developing organism is called a fetus.
Since the precursors of all the major organs are created by this time, the fetal period is described both by organ and by a list of changes by weeks of gestational age.
Because the precursors of the organs are now formed, the fetus is not as sensitive to damage from environmental exposure as the embryo was. Instead, toxic exposure often causes physiological abnormalities or minor congenital malformation.
Development continues throughout the life of the embryo and fetus and through into life after birth. Significant changes occur to many systems in the period after birth as they adapt to life outside the uterus. Fetal hematopoiesis first takes place in the yolk sac. The function is transferred to liver by 10th week of gestation and to spleen and bone marrow beyond that. Fetus produces megaloblastic red blood cells early in development, which become normoblastic near term.
Life span of fetal RBCs is 80 days. Rh antigen appears at about 40 days of gestation. Fetus starts producing leukocytes at 2 months gestation mainly from thymus and spleen. Lymphocytes derived from thymus are called T lymphocytes , whereas the ones derived from bone marrow are called B lymphocytes.
Both these populations of lymphocytes have short-lived and long-lived groups. Short-lived T lymphocytes usually reside in thymus, bone marrow and spleen; whereas long-lived T lymphocytes reside in blood stream. Plasma cells are derived from B lymphocytes and their life in fetal blood is 0. Thyroid gland is the first to develop in fetus at 4th week of gestation.
Insulin secretion in fetus starts around 12th week of gestation. The fetus passes through 3 phases of acquisition of nutrition from mother: Growth rate of fetus is linear up to 37 weeks of gestation, after which it plateaus.
A baby born within the normal range of weight for that gestational age is known as appropriate for gestational age AGA. An abnormally slow growth rate results in the infant being small for gestational age , and, on the other hand, an abnormally large growth rate results in the infant being large for gestational age. A slow growth rate and preterm birth are the two factors that can cause a low birth weight.
The growth rate can be roughly correlated with the fundal height which can be estimated by abdominal palpation. More exact measurements can be performed with obstetric ultrasonography. Intrauterine growth restriction is one of the causes of low birth weight associated with over half of neonatal deaths. Poverty has been linked to poor prenatal care and has been an influence on prenatal development.
Women in poverty are more likely to have children at a younger age, which results in low birth weight. Many of these expecting mothers have little education and are therefore less aware of the risks of smoking , drinking alcohol , and drug use — other factors that influence the growth rate of a fetus.
Women between the ages of 16 and 35 have a healthier environment for a fetus than women under 16 or over Women over 35 are more inclined to have a longer labor period, which could potentially result in death of the mother or fetus. Women under 16 and over 35 have a higher risk of preterm labor premature baby , and this risk increases for women in poverty, African Americans, and women who smoke. Young mothers are more likely to engage in high risk behaviors, such as using alcohol, drugs, or smoking, resulting in negative consequences for the fetus.
There is a risk of Down syndrome for infants born to those aged over 40 years.