Health in India

Isi kandungan


As per the figures about the child mortality rate which is quite a big hurdle for the government, the 2nd most common cause of DALYs lost for children under 5 years of age was diseases like diarrhea, lower respiratory tract infections and other communicable diseases accounting for 22, Sesetengah daripada orang Cina yang tidak puas hati kini melihat Parti Komunis Malaya sebagai harapan yang tunggal untuk mencapai sebuah kemerdekaan. Non ha firmato alcuna opera e la ricostruzione del suo catalogo, nonché la determinazione dei significati iconografici di molte sue opere, è oggetto di numerose controversie e dibattiti tra gli studiosi [1]. Kawat Kematian Sandakan Selepas menerima tekanan yang begitu kuat, pihak British yang masih ingin meneruskan Malayan Union mencadangkan satu jawatankuasa dihantar untuk melihat reaksi masyarakat Melayu. However, the differentials of rural 41 and urban 25 as of are still high.

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Mantenne le funzioni di stazione per la quarantena marittima per tutto l' Ottocento e fino al secondo dopoguerra.

Nell'ultimo periodo gli edifici furono in parte adibiti a convalescenziario geriatrico, ma dal anche questo utilizzo venne dismesso e l'isola fu ceduta al Demanio [2] [4]. Per un periodo i suoi terreni furono assegnati a un agricoltore, mentre gli edifici andavano progressivamente in rovina [2]. Da allora l'isola è stata oggetto di vari progetti di recupero che tuttavia non sono mai stati attuati.

Dal l'isola è gestita, come altre, da Arsenale di Venezia spa, compartecipata dal Comune di Venezia e dall'Agenzia del Demanio [9]. Nel , assieme a San Giacomo in Paludo , Poveglia è stata messa in vendita per essere recuperata a fini turistici [10] ; il 6 marzo l'Agenzia del Demanio inserisce l'isola in un elenco di beni in un "invito pubblico ad offrire" [11] , cioè tramite asta con riserva di valutazione della convenienza economica a vendere da parte di una Commissione istituita all'uopo.

Nell'aprile del è nata un'associazione senza fini di lucro, Poveglia - Poveglia per tutti , con lo scopo di partecipare al bando del demanio per aggiudicarsi il possesso dell'isola per 99 anni e permetterne l'uso pubblico [12].

Dell'antica pieve di San Vitale resta il solo campanile, risparmiato dalle soppressioni napoleoniche perché adibito a faro [2] [4]. L'orologio della torre, risalente al e oggi privo delle lancette, è opera di Bartolomeo Ferracina [16]. La chiesa di Poveglia fu un luogo di culto di una certa importanza in quanto vi si conservava un crocifisso in gesso e stucco del XV secolo ritenuto miracoloso; si trova oggi nella parrocchiale di Malamocco [17]. Sono andate perdute, invece, le tele raffiguranti Cristo condotto al Calvario , di Giulia Lama [18] , e il Miracolo del Crocifisso , di Giovanni Battista Piazzetta [19].

Diverse fonti indicano in Poveglia il luogo ove, nel , fu seppellito il celebre pittore Giorgione [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] , ma non c'è certezza. Un'altra fonte indica ad esempio l'isola del Lazzaretto Nuovo quale luogo di sepoltura [25]. Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

URL consultato il 3 ottobre Società ed economia, Teccani, Trovaso Gervasio e S. In , India developed a 'totally drug-resistant' form of tuberculosis. Malaria has been a seasonal health problem in India from a very long time. The maximum number of malaria cases and deaths have been reported mostly form the rural parts of Orissa. The overall prevalence of the disease has diminished in and however there is a slight increase in and again started decreasing from Kala-azar is the second largest parasitic killer in the world.

Dengue and chikungunya transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, is another problem of concern in India. Dengue outbreaks have continued since the s but severity of disease has increased in the last two decades. In , India reported a total of 58, cases of chikungunya. In , India was polio-free for the first time in its history. India has witnessed huge progress in the health status of its population after its independence. During this period the transition have been seen in economic development, nutritional status, fertility and mortality rates and consequently, the disease profile has changed considerably.

Although great efforts have been done to control the communicable diseases, but they still contribute significantly to disease burden of the country. Decline in DALYs and deaths from communicable diseases have been accompanied by a gradual shift to, and accelerated rise in the prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases NCDs such as cardiovascular disease CVD , diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD , cancers, mental health disorders and injuries.

Indians are at particularly high risk for atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. This may be attributed to a genetic predisposition to metabolic syndrome and adverse changes in coronary artery vasodilation. Several million more suffer from multiple episodes of diarrhea and still others fall ill on account of Hepatitis A, enteric fever, intestinal worms and eye and skin infections caused by poor hygiene and unsafe drinking water.

Despite health improvements over the last thirty years, lives continue to be lost to early childhood diseases, inadequate newborn care and childbirth-related causes.

More than two million children die every year from preventable infections. Reduced funding for immunization leaves only Maternal deaths are similarly high. The reasons for this high mortality are that few women have access to skilled birth attendants and fewer still to quality emergency obstetric care.

In addition, only 15 per cent of mothers receive complete antenatal care and only 58 per cent receive iron or folate tablets or syrup. Some of them include the following:. The High Level Expert Group report recommends an increase in public expenditure on health from 1.

However, even this is far lower than the global median of 5 per cent. Out of pocket expenditures arise even in public sector hospitals, since lack of medicines means that patients have to buy them. This results in a very high financial burden on families in case of severe illness. OOP can be reduced only by increasing public expenditure on health and by setting up widespread public health service providers. Instead of developing a better public health system with enhanced health budget, 12th five-year plan document plans to hand over health care system to private institutions.

The 12th plan document causes concern over Rashtriya Swasthya Bhima Yojana being used as a medium to hand over public funds to the private sector through an insurance route. This has also incentivised unnecessary treatment which in due course will increase costs and premiums.

There have been complaints about high transaction cost for this scheme due to insurance intermediaries. RSBY does not take into consideration state specific variation in disease profiles and health needs. Even though these things are acknowledged in the report, no alternative remedy is given. It was easy for the government to recruit poor women as ASHA Accredited Social Health Activist workers but it has failed to bring doctors, nurses and specialist in this area.

The ASHA workers who are coming from a poor background are given incentive based on performance. Meskipun penentangan orang-orang Melayu begitu hebat, kerajaan British enggan menarik balik pelakasanaan rancangan Malayan Union.

Sebaliknya, kerajaan British mendesak bahawa Malayan Union dilaksanakan dengan segera supaya Pentadbiran Tentera British yang memerintah Tanah Melayu sejak akhir Pendudukan Jepun dapat dibatalkan. Bagaimanapun, penentangan terhadap Malayan Union adalah sangat kuat sehingga rancangan itu tidak dapat dikuatkuasakan dengan sepenuhnya. Malah pada majlis perlantikan Edw sebagai Gabernor yang pertama majlis tersebut telah dipulau oleh sultan-sultan Melayu.

Ia adalah kesan daripada tindakan orang-orang Melayu yang telah berhimpun di luar rumah tumpangan yang didiami oleh sultan-sultan Melayu yang ingin menghadiri ucapara perlantikan tersebut. Ketika itu Orang-orang melayu telah bertindak berkabung dengan cara melilit kain putih pada songkok. Orang-orang Melayu yang berkumpul itu telah menghantar wakil mereka iaitu Dato' Onn Jaafar untuk berunding dengan sultan-sultan agar turut memulaukan upacara tersebut.

Melihatkan sokongan rakyat yang begitu kuat mempertahankan tahta mereka, telah menyedarkan sekelian baginda sultan untuk turut berjuang bersama-sama rakyat jelata untuk menggagalkan Malayan Union.

Akhirnya, Malayan Union dibatalkan pada 1 Februari selepas itu untuk mengantikan Malayan Union yang telah gagal itu pihak British terpaksa menurut kehendak masyarakat Melayu yang bertindak melalui UMNO untuk mengwujudkan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu. Pembentukan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu merupakan suatu kemenangan untuk orang-orang Melayu tetapi disambut dengan kecewa oleh beberapa golongan-golongan di dalam etnik yang lain.

Bagaimanapun, mereka yang menentang cadangan Persekutuan tidak mempunyai sokongan di Tanah Melayu sendiri. Serta lobi Parlimen dan penyokong-penyokong di London yang telah membantu dalam pembatalan skim Malayan Union. Orang-orang Cina yang berada di Tanah Melayu berasa dikhianati kerana mereka tahu jumalah orang Cina yang terkorban lebih besar berbanding orang Melayu, sepanjang peperangan dengan Jepun. Sesetengah daripada orang Cina yang tidak puas hati kini melihat Parti Komunis Malaya sebagai harapan yang tunggal untuk mencapai sebuah kemerdekaan.

Ini didasari oleh pendapat pihak British telah meminggirkan masyarakat cina Tanah Melayu. Daripada Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas. Diambil daripada " https: Ruang nama Rencana Perbincangan. Rupa Baca Sunting Sunting sumber Lihat sejarah. Laman ini diubah buat kali terakhir pada Lihat Terma-Terma Penggunaan untuk butiran lanjut. Bahasa Malaysia Bahasa Inggeris. Rencana ini ialah sebahagian daripada Sejarah Malaysia.

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